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1.
2.
The effects of applied gibberellins (GAs), GA1, GA3, GA4 and GA7 with a cytokinin, N-(2-chloro-4-pyridyl)-N′-phenylurea (CPPU) and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) on fruit set, parthenogenesis induction and fruit expansion of a number of Rosaceae species were assessed. These included Japanese pear cv. ‘Akibae’ (self-compatible) and cv. ‘Iwate yamanashi’ (a seedless cultivar). Other Rosaceae species (Pyrus communis, Chaenomeles sinensis, Cydonia oblonga, and Malus pumila) were also investigated. GA4, GA7 and CPPU are very effective in inducing parthenocarpic fruit growth, whereas GA1, GA3 and IAA, have no ability to induce parthenogenesis in Japanese pear. GA4- and GA7-induced parthenocarpic fruit tended to be smaller in size, higher in flesh hardness, and showed advanced fruit ripening in comparison to pollinated fruit and to parthenocarpic fruit induced by CPPU. GA4- and GA7-induced parthenocarpic fruit also had an increased pedicel length and fruit shape index and also showed a slight protrusion of the calyx end. CPPU, GA4 and GA7 alone or combination with uniconazole were also active in inducing parthenogenesis in three other Rosaceae species, although final fruit set was extremely low. GA1 was essentially inactive in promoting fruit expansion unlike the other bioactive GAs, whose effectiveness in promoting fruit cell expansion was as follow: GA4 ≈ GA7 > GA3 > GA1.  相似文献   
3.
Quince (Cydonia oblonga Mill.), pear (Pyrus communis L.) and olive (Olea europaea L.) genotypes were evaluated for their tolerance to iron deficiency stress by growing young plants in three types of aerated nutrient solutions: (1) with iron, (2) without iron or (3) low in iron and with 10 mM bicarbonate. Plants were obtained either from rooted softwood cuttings or from germination of seeds. The degree of tolerance was evaluated with several indices: (1) the chlorophyll content, (2) the root Fe3+ reducing capacity and (3) the whole plant relative growth. Fifteen hours before Fe3+ reducing capacity determination, iron was applied to the roots of plants with iron-stress, since this method resulted in increasing the reductase activity. All quince and pear genotypes increased the root Fe3+ reducing capacity when grown in the treatments for iron-stress, in relation to control plants of the same genotypes. In olive cultivars, the Fe3+ reducing capacity was lower in the iron-stress treatments than in the control one. Studying the relationship between relative growth and chlorophyll content for each genotype under iron-stress, in relation to both indices in control plants, a classification of species and genotypes was established. According to that, most olive cultivars and some pear rootstocks and cultivars appear more iron-efficient than quince rootstocks. Our study shows that in some woody species, determining root Fe3+ reducing capacity is not the best method to establish tolerance to iron deficiency stress.  相似文献   
4.
Abstract

Calcium, as in general for all plants, is very important for fruit trees and a tight correlation between leaf content and cropping efficiency has been found.

The annual removal of calcium oxide of an orchard has been estimated in kg per hectare: pear 200, apple 180, peach 150, grape 60–130, olive 35–70, kiwi 55–60.

The rootstock affects the calcium uptake from the soil and content of the scion; frequently a higher calcium content is found in trees grafted an dwarfing rootstocks as pear on quince, apple on M9 and M26, peach on Damas.

By the horticultural point of view, calcium is responsible of two main problems: chlorosis due to high active Ca content in the soil and bitter pit, on the apposite, due to a low Ca level in the fruits.

From soil and leaf studies it seems clear that lime-induced Fe chlorosis results from two conditions: a) slow availability of Fe in the soil, and b) immobilization of Fe in the tree in forms that are not available for chlorophyll formation.

Breeding tolerant rootstocks has been the practical solution of chlorosis for most of the susceptible species.

Bitter pit is a physiological disorder of apple fruits, sometime already evident before picking, more frequently after harvesting, during the storage.

The prevention of the disorder is, essentially, a good horticultural practice (pruning, fertilization, irrigation, fruit thinning). Very effective are also Ca sprays as chloride or nitrate, or citrate, or phosphate, starting after setting, 4–5 times every 10–12 days.  相似文献   
5.
根据鸭梨多酚氧化酶基因序列设计引物,PCR扩增该基因3′端450bp的片段,并将该片段反向插入真核表达载体pB I121的CaMV 35S启动子和NOS终止子之间,首次构建了鸭梨PPO基因的反义表达载体;其后,在农杆菌EHA105的介导下,成功实现了PPO反义基因对鸭梨组培苗的遗传转化。经Northern杂交和酶活检测证实,转基因鸭梨植株体内的多酚氧化酶基因转录和翻译水平均得到明显抑制,从而为耐褐化梨新品种的培育奠定了基础。  相似文献   
6.
The parasitoids associated with the common pistachio psylla, Agonoscena pistaciae Burckhardt and Lauterer, were investigated at three pistachio plantations in Rafsanjan, Iran. Of the 6504 wasps emerging from mummified psyllids, 46% were the primary parasitoid Psyllaephagus pistaciae Ferrière, and the remaining 54% represented six species of hymenopterous hyperparasitoids, including Chartocerus kurdjumovi (Nikol’skaja), Marietta picta (André), Pachyneuron aphidis (Bouché), Pachyneuron muscarum (Linnaeus), Psyllaphycus diaphorinae (Hayat), and Syrphophagus aphidivorus (Mayr). Lysiphlebus fabarum Marshall, the parasitoid of Aphis gossypii Glover and Aphis craccivora Koch present on weeds, was found to be an alternative host for three major hyperparasitoids of A. pistaciae. The most abundant hyperparasitoid was S. aphidivorus, appearing during the growing season in all trial locations on psyllids and aphids in pistachio orchards. The weed-infesting aphids, along with their primary parasitoid, can act as a reservoir of A. pistaciae secondary parasitoids. Therefore, parasitized aphids allow populations of secondary parasitoids to increase and consequently to apply higher pressure on P. pistaciae. We detected that two primary parasitoid species, including P. pistaciae and L. fabarum, attacking different species of hosts interact indirectly through shared secondary parasitism. It is suggested that the community structure of A. pistaciae may be influenced by apparent competition, although more work is needed to provide firm evidence.  相似文献   
7.
‘晚大新高’梨授粉及受精过程的显微动态研究   总被引:4,自引:1,他引:3  
应用荧光显微法和石蜡切片解剖法对‘晚大新高’梨授粉受精过程进行了系统观察研究。结果表明:‘晚大新高’梨自花授粉不结实;异花最佳授粉品种为‘黄花’,其次为‘翠冠’和‘丰水’。与选用‘黄花’为异花授粉品种相比,自花和异花的授粉受精过程存在明显差异,自花花粉在授粉后2h开始萌发,8h花粉管生长至离柱头约1/3处停止生长,顶端膨大呈球形,表现出自交不亲和性;异花花粉在授粉后1h开始部分萌发,8h花粉管生长至花柱中部,24h到达花柱基部并进入子房,48h进入胚囊,72h完成双受精过程。  相似文献   
8.
AK-toxin I, a host-specific toxin to Japanese pear (Pyrus serotina), was synthesized as its methyl ester from three precursor fragments: conjugated diene-carboxylic acid, chiral epoxyalcohol and β-methylphenylalanine. The epoxyalcohol fragment was derived from D-fructose, in which effective homologation of the hemiacetal carbon to alkyne by using dimethyl 1-diazo-2-oxopropylphosphonate was the key reaction. The diene-carboxylic acid fragment was prepared by repeated Wittig reactions, and was combined with the epoxyalcohol fragment by the Stille reaction. Esterification of the combined product with the stereochemically-pure β-methylphenylalanine fragment afforded the target compound. This method was used to prepare the methyl ester of tritium-labeled AK-toxin I with a specific radioactivity of 213 GBq/mmol.  相似文献   
9.
以‘砀山酥梨’为材料,采用酶联免疫分析法(ELISA),测定叶片中内源IAA的含量.依据已构建的缺铁叶片SSH文库中生长素抑制蛋白(ARP)基因片段的序列信息,应用RACE技术克隆其cDNA全长,通过实时荧光定量(qRT-PCR)技术,分析ARP基因的相对表达量.结果表明:(1)ARP基因cDNA全长为707 bp,其中开放阅读框为351 bp,编码116个氨基酸,推测的蛋白质分子量为12.82 kD;该蛋白可能定位于微体,属于非分泌型、非跨膜蛋白类,并具有ARP基因家族的保守结构域.(2)在不同程度缺铁叶片中ARP基因的表达量存在差异,随着缺铁程度的增加,表达量显著升高,同时叶片中内源IAA含量逐渐降低.据此推测,ARP基因可能负反馈调节缺铁黄化叶片中IAA的水平,从而调控叶片的生长发育.  相似文献   
10.
不同栽培管理梨园梨小食心虫发生程度研究   总被引:3,自引:1,他引:2  
梨小食心虫Grapholitha molesta(Busck)是梨园中的一种重要害虫。本论文采用性诱剂诱集法研究了不同栽培管理条件下梨园梨小食心虫发生的情况。结果表明,在5种不同种植模式的果园中,梨小食心虫在单植桃园中发生最重,试验期间梨小食心虫的日平均诱蛾量为10.9头/盆,与其他4种栽植模式果园的诱捕量均呈显著差异,且混有桃树的果园中梨小食心虫的发生数量多,而单植梨园、梨苹果混栽园、单植苹果园的梨小食心虫发生相对较轻。果实套袋的管理方法也可以显著降低梨小食心虫的发生数量,非套袋梨园的日平均诱捕量为13.8头/盆,是套袋梨园的1.52倍。试验还表明,不同品种和不同树龄的梨树对梨小食心虫的抗虫性均存在显著差异。酥梨比巴梨的抗虫性差,试验期间酥梨园的日平均诱捕量为12.6头/盆,是巴梨园的2.21倍,而40年老酥梨园日平均诱蛾量为12.5头/盆,是20年酥梨园诱蛾量的2.5倍。  相似文献   
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