首页 | 本学科首页   官方微博 | 高级检索  
文章检索
  按 检索   检索词:      
出版年份:   被引次数:   他引次数: 提示:输入*表示无穷大
  收费全文   3672篇
  免费   449篇
  国内免费   291篇
  2023年   79篇
  2022年   58篇
  2021年   107篇
  2020年   103篇
  2019年   146篇
  2018年   109篇
  2017年   127篇
  2016年   137篇
  2015年   137篇
  2014年   177篇
  2013年   212篇
  2012年   198篇
  2011年   174篇
  2010年   177篇
  2009年   204篇
  2008年   223篇
  2007年   194篇
  2006年   189篇
  2005年   175篇
  2004年   148篇
  2003年   131篇
  2002年   136篇
  2001年   110篇
  2000年   84篇
  1999年   72篇
  1998年   74篇
  1997年   64篇
  1996年   57篇
  1995年   57篇
  1994年   49篇
  1993年   42篇
  1992年   38篇
  1991年   30篇
  1990年   36篇
  1989年   26篇
  1988年   27篇
  1987年   20篇
  1986年   22篇
  1985年   48篇
  1984年   37篇
  1983年   24篇
  1982年   24篇
  1981年   19篇
  1980年   29篇
  1979年   25篇
  1978年   8篇
  1977年   13篇
  1976年   14篇
  1974年   4篇
  1973年   9篇
排序方式: 共有4412条查询结果,搜索用时 15 毫秒
1.
2.
Organisms often face a higher risk of local extinction in fragmented than in continuous habitat. However, whether populations are affected by reduced size and connectivity of the habitat or by changes in habitat quality in fragmented landscapes remains poorly investigated. We studied the regional distribution and microhabitat selection of the lacertid lizard Psammodromus algirus in a fragmented landscape where the existence of deciduous and evergreen woodlands brought about variation in habitat quality. Lizards never occupied any fragment smaller than 0.5 ha. However, above that limit fragment size no longer predicted lizard occurrence, which was explained by woodland type instead, with lizards being more frequently found in deciduous than in evergreen woodlands. Lizards selected microhabitats that had structural features favouring thermoregulation, foraging and predator avoidance, and we identified better conditions for thermoregulation and food acquisition in deciduous than in evergreen woodlands. Our results support the idea that variation in habitat quality can sometimes override the effect of habitat fragmentation on animal populations. We consider the implications of our study for the conservation of Mediterranean lizards, discussing our results in a broader context framed by previous studies conducted in nearby areas.  相似文献   
3.
Adaptation to different environments can promote population divergence via natural selection even in the presence of gene flow – a phenomenon that typically occurs during ecological speciation. To elucidate how natural selection promotes and maintains population divergence during speciation, we investigated the population genetic structure, degree of gene flow and heterogeneous genomic divergence in three closely related Japanese phytophagous ladybird beetles: Henosepilachna pustulosa, H. niponica and H. yasutomii. These species act as a generalist, a wild thistle (Cirsium spp.) specialist and a blue cohosh (Caulophyllum robustum) specialist, respectively, and their ranges differ accordingly. The two specialist species widely co‐occur but are reproductively isolated solely due to their high specialization to a particular host plant. Genomewide amplified fragment‐length polymorphism (AFLP) markers and mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) gene sequences demonstrated obvious genomewide divergence associated with both geographic distance and ecological divergence. However, a hybridization assessment for both AFLP loci and the mitochondrial sequences revealed a certain degree of unidirectional gene flow between the two sympatric specialist species. Principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) based on all of the variable AFLP loci demonstrated that there are genetic similarities between populations from adjacent localities irrespective of the species (i.e. host range). However, a further comparative genome scan identified a few fractions of loci representing approximately 1% of all loci as different host‐associated outliers. These results suggest that these three species had a complex origin, which could be obscured by current gene flow, and that ecological divergence can be maintained with only a small fraction of the genome is related to different host use even when there is a certain degree of gene flow between sympatric species pairs.  相似文献   
4.
Early generations of hybrids can express both genetic incompatibilities and phenotypic novelty. Insights into whether these conflicting interactions between intrinsic and extrinsic selection persist after a few generations of recombination require experimental studies. To address this question, we use interpopulation crosses and recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of the copepod Tigriopus californicus, and focus on two traits that are relevant for the diversification of this species: survivorship during development and tolerance to thermal stress. Experimental crosses between two population pairs show that most RILs between two heat‐tolerant populations show enhanced tolerance to temperatures that are lethal to the respective parentals, whereas RILs between a heat‐tolerant and a heat‐sensitive population are intermediate. Although interpopulation crosses are affected by intrinsic selection at early generational hybrids, most of the sampled F9 RILs have recovered fitness to the level of their parentals. Together, these results suggest that a few generations of recombination allows for an independent segregation of the genes underlying thermal tolerance and cytonuclear incompatibilities, permitting certain recombinant lineages to survive in niches previously unused by parental taxa (i.e., warmer thermal environments) without incurring intrinsic selection.  相似文献   
5.
In this study, the bacteria having ore enrichment potential were isolated from three different magnesite quarries located in Erzurum-Askale borderlines. The obtained isolates were identified and characterized according to the conventional (morphological, physiological and biochemical tests) and molecular techniques (fatty acid methyl ester profiles (FAME), BOX PCR and 16S rDNA). According to sequence analysis, they were determined as Exiguobacterium aurantiacum (4), Exiguobacterium sibiricum (2), Bacillus sp. (2), Staphylococcus epidermidis (2), Staphylococcus haemolyticus (1), Shewanella baltica (1) and Klebsiella oxytoca (1), respectively.  相似文献   
6.
Studies on spatial density dependence in parasitism have paid scarce attention to how changes in host density at different hierarchical scales could influence parasitism in an herbivore at a particular scale. Here, we evaluated if rates of parasitism per leaf (by the whole parasitic complex and by dominant species) of the specialist leaf miner Liriomyza commelinae (Diptera: Agromyzidae) respond to variations in host density at the leaf, plant patch and site levels in an urban setting. We used multi‐level Bayesian models that incorporate the spatial hierarchy occurring in this system, as well as habitat factors previously found to have an effect on the L. commelinae parasitoid community in an urban context (patch size, patch isolation and urbanization level). According to the fitted model, overall parasitism rates decreased with increasing number of mines per leaf, being independent of host‐density variations at patch and site level. Patch structure was found to have a strong effect on parasitism rates per leaf. The analysis of parasitism by parasitoid species separately showed consistent results with the response at community level. These results suggest that parasitism of the parasitoid community here studied would be sensitive to hierarchical cues related to the host at the leaf level and to the host habitat at the patch level.  相似文献   
7.
A Rickettsia sp. was isolated from the blood of a patient with an acute febrile illness using the shell vial technique; the isolate was named CN45Kr and was identified by molecular assay as Rickettsia monacensis , which was first recognized as a pathogen in Spain. Sequencing analysis showed that the gltA sequence of the isolate was identical to that of Rickettsia sp. IRS3. The ompA‐ 5mp fragment sequence showed 100% identity to those of R. monacensis and Rickettsia sp. In56 and ompA‐3pA In56 and 100% identity to that of Rickettsia sp. IRS3. The ompB sequence was found to have 99.9% similarity to that of R. monacensis IrR/Munich. This study confirms the pathogenicity of this agent and provides additional information about its geographic distribution.
  相似文献   
8.
There is a major risk that many of the remaining semi-natural pastures in Swedish forest dominated regions will lose their grazing in the near future with lost biodiversity as a result. The reason is the high costs of grazing small pastures with cattle from generally small herds. The approaching decoupling of the present EU income support per head of cattle will increase the risk. Calculations based on economies of scale in beef production and opportunity cost of forest and arable land suggest that re-creating extensive pasture-forest mosaics consisting of existing semi-natural pastures and adjacent arable fields and forests can secure economically sustainable grazing. The risk of local extinction of grassland species due to habitat isolation is also lower in large mosaics than in small, scattered pastures.  相似文献   
9.
Here, we seek to determine how compliantly suspended loads could affect the dynamic stability of legged locomotion. We theoretically model the dynamic stability of a human carrying a load using a coupled spring-mass-damper model and an actuated spring-loaded inverted pendulum model, as these models have demonstrated the ability to correctly predict other aspects of locomotion with a load in prior work, such as body forces and energetic cost. We report that minimizing the load suspension natural frequency and damping ratio significantly reduces the stability of the load mass but may slightly improve the body stability of locomotion when compared to a rigidly attached load. These results imply that a highly-compliant load suspension could help stabilize body motion during human, animal, or robot load carriage, but at the cost of a more awkward (less stable) load.  相似文献   
10.
设为首页 | 免责声明 | 关于勤云 | 加入收藏

Copyright©北京勤云科技发展有限公司  京ICP备09084417号