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1.
Aim The Chilean endemic Dioscorea biloba (Dioscoreaceae) is a dioecious geophyte that shows a remarkable 600 km north–south disjunction in the peripheral arid area of the Atacama Desert. Its restricted present‐day distribution and probable Neogene origin indicate that its populations have a history linked to that of the Atacama Desert, making this an ideal model species with which to investigate the biogeography of the region. Location Chile, Atacama Desert and peripheral arid area. Methods Two hundred and seventy‐five individuals from nine populations were genotyped for seven nuclear microsatellite loci, and plastid trnL–F and trnT–L sequences were obtained for a representative subset of these. Analyses included the estimation of genetic diversity and population structure through clustering, Bayesian and analysis of molecular variance analyses, and statistical parsimony networks of chloroplast haplotypes. Isolation by distance was tested against alternative dispersal hypotheses. Results Microsatellite markers revealed moderate to high levels of genetic diversity within populations, with those from the southern Limarí Valley showing the highest values and northern populations showing less exclusive alleles. Bayesian analysis of microsatellite data identified three genetic groups that corresponded to geographical ranges. Chloroplast phylogeography revealed no haplotypes shared between northern and southern ranges, and little haplotype sharing between the two neighbouring southern valleys. Dispersal models suggested the presence of extinct hypothetical populations between the southern and northern ranges. Main conclusions Our results are consistent with prolonged isolation of the northern and southern groups, mediated by the life‐history traits of the species. Significant isolation was revealed at both large and moderate distances as gene flow was not evident even between neighbouring valleys. Bayesian analyses of microsatellite and chloroplast haplotype diversity identified the southern area of Limarí as the probable area of origin of the species. Our data do not support recent dispersal of D. biloba from the southern range into Antofagasta, but indicate the fragmentation of an earlier wider range, concomitant with the Pliocene–Pleistocene climatic oscillations, with subsequent extinctions of the Atacama Desert populations and the divergence of the peripheral ones as a consequence of genetic drift.  相似文献   
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Abstract

Brassica rupestris Raf. is a chasmophyte species that includes two subspecies, both endemic to Central-Western Sicily (Italy). Inter-Simple Sequence Repeat (ISSR) markers were used to detect genetic diversity within and among eight populations representative of the species' distribution range. High levels of genetic diversity were revealed both at the population (PPB = 53.88%, H S = 0.212, Sh = 0.309) and at the species level (PPB = 96.55%, H T = 0.307, Sh = 0.464). The correlation between genetic and geographical distances was negative (Mantel test, r = ?0.06, P < 0.95). The two subspecies of B. rupestris, subsp. rupestris and subsp. hispida, showed remarkable genetic similarity and molecular data did not unequivocally support their distinctness. The pattern of genetic variation revealed by our study bears important consequences for conservation management: It is desirable to preserve B. rupestris populations in situ with a “dynamic” strategy, while, ex situ conservation programmes might be improved to safeguard maximum genetic diversity.  相似文献   
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In C. elegans, cell death can be readily studied at the cellular, genetic, and molecular levels. Two types of death have been characterized in this nematode: (1) programmed cell death, which occurs as a normal component in development; and (2) pathological cell death which occurs aberrantly as a consequence of mutation. Analysis of mutations that disrupt programmed cell death in various ways has defined a genetic pathway for programmed cell death which includes genes that perform such functions as the determination of which cells die, the execution of cell death, the engulfment of cell corpses, and the digestion of DNA from dead cells. Molecular analysis is providing insightinto the nature of the molecules that function in these aspects of programmed cell death. Characterization of some genes that mutate to induce abnormal cell death has defined a novel gene family called degenerins that encode putative membrane proteins. Dominant alleles of at least two degenerin genes, mec-4 and deg-1, can cause cellular swelling and late onset neurodegeneration of specific groups of cells. © 1992 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.  相似文献   
4.
《Molecular cell》2021,81(20):4271-4286.e4
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5.
Improving our knowledge of the links between ecology and evolution is especially critical in the actual context of global rapid environmental changes. A critical step in that direction is to quantify how variation in ecological factors linked to habitat modifications might shape observed levels of genetic variability in wild populations. Still, little is known on the factors affecting levels and distribution of genetic diversity at the individual level, despite its vital underlying role in evolutionary processes. In this study, we assessed the effects of habitat quality on population structure and individual genetic diversity of tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) breeding along a gradient of agricultural intensification in southern Québec, Canada. Using a landscape genetics approach, we found that individual genetic diversity was greater in poorer quality habitats. This counter-intuitive result was partly explained by the settlement patterns of tree swallows across the landscape. Individuals of higher genetic diversity arrived earlier on their breeding grounds and settled in the first available habitats, which correspond to intensive cultures. Our results highlight the importance of investigating the effects of environmental variability on individual genetic diversity, and of integrating information on landscape structure when conducting such studies.  相似文献   
6.
Published gene frequency data, checked for consistency of allele definitions across laboratories and for comparability of geographically identical samples, were pooled into a data set containing frequencies at nine loci for each of 20 populations that encompassed 10 macaque species. Genetic distances were calculated by the methods of Kidd and Cavalli-Sforza (1974). These distances were used to construct phylogenetic trees and to evaluate the relationships between divergence times and effective population sizes. Inter-and intraspecific genetic distances and the groupings defined by phenetic tree analyses support Fooden’s (1976) classification of the genus Macacainto four species groups. A paleozoogeographical model of Asia including the known times of major sea-level changes allows us to explain Macacainto four species groups. A paleozoogeographical model of Asia including the known times of major sea-level changes allows us to explain qualitatively the inferred evolutionary relationships among macaque species. Many assumptions are required in order to estimate the variables necessary in the quantitative prediction of genetic differences for a comparison between any two populations. Examination of those assumptions demonstrates the need for more accurate genetic as well as paleozoogeographic information. An erratum to this article is available at .  相似文献   
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