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1.
At fine spatial scales, savanna‐rainforest‐grassland boundary dynamics are thought to be mediated by the interplay between fire, vegetation and soil feedbacks. These processes were investigated by quantifying tree species composition, the light environment, quantities and flammability of fuels, bark thickness, and soil conditions across stable and dynamic rainforest boundaries that adjoin grassland and eucalypt savanna in the highlands of the Bunya Mountains, southeast Queensland, Australia. The size class distribution of savanna and rainforest stems was indicative of the encroachment of rainforest species into savanna and grassland. Increasing dominance of rainforest trees corresponds to an increase in woody canopy cover, the dominance of litter fuels (woody debris and leaf), and decline in grass occurrence. There is marked difference in litter and grass fuel flammability and this result is largely an influence of strongly dissimilar fuel bulk densities. Relative bark thickness, a measure of stem fire resistance, was found to be generally greater in savanna species when compared to that of rainforest species, with notable exceptions being the conifers Araucaria bidwillii and Araucaria cunninghamii. A transect study of soil nutrients across one dynamic rainforest – grassland boundary indicated the mass of carbon and nitrogen, but not phosphorus, increased across the successional gradient. Soil carbon turnover time is shortest in stable rainforest, intermediate in dynamic rainforest and longest in grassland highlighting nutrient cycling differentiation. We conclude that the general absence of fire in the Bunya Mountains, due to a divergence from traditional Aboriginal burning practices, has allowed for the encroachment of fire‐sensitive rainforest species into the flammable biomes of this landscape. Rainforest invasion is likely to have reduced fire risk via changes to fuel composition and microclimatic conditions, and this feedback will be reinforced by altered nutrient cycling. The mechanics of the feedbacks here identified are discussed in terms of landscape change theory.  相似文献   
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Savanna vegetation is controlled by bottom‐up (e.g. soil and rainfall) and top–down (e.g. fire and herbivory) factors, all of which have an effect on biodiversity. Little is known about the relative contribution of these factors to biodiversity, particularly the long‐term effects of top–down disturbance on patterns of woody plant composition. The aim of this study was to identify if various degrees of disturbance regimes create distinct woody species community assemblages. Data were collected over 1820 plots across Kruger National Park, South Africa. Woody species were identified and categorized into one of three height classes: shrub (0.75–2.5 m), brush (2.5–5.5 m), and tree (>5.5 m). Species richness and composition were calculated for each site and height class. A combination of long‐term fire and elephant density data were used to delineate areas with varying degrees of top–down disturbance (i.e. low, medium and high). Using these degrees of disturbance, species composition was identified and community assemblages constructed according to each disturbance regime. Our results suggest that areas with similar disturbance regimes have similar species composition. Shrub composition was mainly responsive to the number of fires between the years 1941–1990, while tree composition was more responsive to elephant disturbance. A few dominant species were found equally under all degrees of disturbance at all height classes, while others were more regularly found under specific disturbance regimes at particular height classes. This study highlights that while species richness does not appear to be influenced by long‐term, top–down disturbance regimes, species community composition may be responsive to these disturbances. Most species and structural classes persisted across all disturbance regimes, but the long‐term effects of top–down disturbances can influence compositional and structural biodiversity. This information provides context for management policies related to artificial water provision, elephants and fire.  相似文献   
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We describe eight new microsatellite loci for the critically endangered fire‐bellied toad, Bombina bombina. Seven of them are polymorphic with two to seven alleles per locus, an expected heterozygosity between 0.41 and 0.8, and an observed heterozygosity between 0.27 and 0.7. The yield of new loci was relatively low, presumably due to mildly repetitive sequence motifs in microsatellite flanking regions. As typical for anurans, cross‐species amplification was limited (here, to congeners Bombina orientalis and Bombina variegata). Combining these new loci with those already available provides a reasonable number of loci for population studies and pedigree analysis in Bombina.  相似文献   
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Fifteen microsatellite loci were isolated from the Peruvian tropical plant‐ant Allomerus octoarticulatus cf. demerarae (Hymenoptera: Myrmicinae) and their polymorphism was characterized. High levels of within‐population variation were observed at most loci, with number of alleles ranging from one to 21, and heterozygosity from 0 to 1 per population sample. Cross‐species amplification of these loci was also tested in one other species of the ant genus Allomerus (Allomerus decemarticulatus), displaying similar life history.  相似文献   
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Ants of the genus Oecophylla are predators of other insects and are able to protect a variety of terrestrial plants against pest insects; however, observations on the ecology of these ants in mangrove forests are lacking. General observations on the ecology of Oecophylla smaragdina were carried out in a Thai mangrove forest to determine if these ants can protect their host plants in less favorable mangrove habitats. Leaf herbivory and the density of O. smaragdina ants were measured on Rhizophora mucronata trees at two sites. The results showed a negative correlation between ant density and herbivory. At both sites, the mean percent damaged leaf area was more than four times higher on trees without ants compared to “ant‐trees.” A significant negative correlation was found between tree mean percent leaf damage and the density of ants on the tree. Furthermore, on trees with ants, there was less herbivory on leaves close to ant nests compared to other leaves on the tree. Most damage was caused by chrysomelid beetles (62%) and sesarmid crabs (25%) and both types of herbivory were significantly reduced on ant‐trees.  相似文献   
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Abstract We present a regional fuel load model (1 km2 spatial resolution) applied in the southern African savanna region. The model is based on a patch-scale production efficiency model (PEM) scaled up to the regional level using empirical relationships between patch-scale behavior and multi-source remote sensing data (spatio-temporal variability of vegetation and climatic variables). The model requires the spatial distribution of woody vegetation cover, which is used to determine separate respiration rates for tree and grass. Net primary production, grass and tree leaf death, and herbivory are also taken into account in this mechanistic modeling approach. The fuel load model has been calibrated and validated from independent measurements taken from savanna vegetation in Africa southward from the equator. A sensitivity analysis on the effect of climate variables (incoming radiation, air temperature, and precipitation) has been conducted to demonstrate the strong role that water availability has in determining productivity and subsequent fuel load over the southern African region. The model performance has been tested in four different areas representative of a regional increasing rainfall gradient—Etosha National Park, Namibia, Mongu and Kasama, Zambia, as well as in Kruger National Park, South Africa. Within each area, we analyze model output from three different magnitudes of canopy coverage (<5, 30, and 50%). We find that fuel load ranges predicted by the model are globally in agreement with field measurements for the same year. High rainfall sustains green herbaceous production late in the dry season and delays tree leaf litter production. Effect of water on production varies across the rainfall gradient with delayed start of green material production in more arid regions.  相似文献   
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We describe the isolation and characterization of five dinucleotide microsatellite loci in the ant Myrmica scabrinodis, which were obtained using a magnetic bead hybridization selection protocol. The PCR primers were tested on nine to 11 individuals. The number of alleles ranged from two to 13, and the observed heterozygosity from 0.200 to 0.778.  相似文献   
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