首页 | 本学科首页   官方微博 | 高级检索  
文章检索
  按 检索   检索词:      
出版年份:   被引次数:   他引次数: 提示:输入*表示无穷大
  收费全文   4787篇
  免费   276篇
  国内免费   248篇
  2024年   17篇
  2023年   77篇
  2022年   94篇
  2021年   143篇
  2020年   129篇
  2019年   145篇
  2018年   160篇
  2017年   117篇
  2016年   148篇
  2015年   286篇
  2014年   317篇
  2013年   398篇
  2012年   198篇
  2011年   197篇
  2010年   161篇
  2009年   237篇
  2008年   235篇
  2007年   257篇
  2006年   201篇
  2005年   216篇
  2004年   207篇
  2003年   165篇
  2002年   142篇
  2001年   107篇
  2000年   97篇
  1999年   96篇
  1998年   89篇
  1997年   81篇
  1996年   65篇
  1995年   64篇
  1994年   63篇
  1993年   56篇
  1992年   41篇
  1991年   39篇
  1990年   41篇
  1989年   33篇
  1988年   25篇
  1987年   36篇
  1986年   22篇
  1985年   12篇
  1984年   27篇
  1983年   12篇
  1982年   15篇
  1981年   9篇
  1980年   14篇
  1979年   7篇
  1978年   4篇
  1977年   2篇
  1976年   3篇
  1974年   3篇
排序方式: 共有5311条查询结果,搜索用时 15 毫秒
1.
Three naturally occurring isocoumarins (paepalantine, paepalantine 9-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside and paepalantine 9-O-beta-D-allopyranosyl(1 --> 6) glucopyranoside) and two semi-synthetic analogues, 9,10-acylated compound and 9-OH-10-methylated compound, structurally similar to paepalantine, were evaluated for antimicrobial activity using a spectrophotometric microdilution technique. The paepalantine was active against S. aureus, S. epidermidis, and E. faecalis while the other four compounds proved ineffective against all microorganisms tested at concentrations of 500 microg/ml. Variations in phenolic substitution at OH-9 and/or OH-10 in the paepalantine molecule resulted in compounds without antimicrobial activity. A combination of structural features, two phenolic groups as cathecolic system, forms an oxygenated system arrangement that may reflect the potentially antimicrobial properties of paepalantine.  相似文献   
2.
A copolymer, including a Gly-Arg-Gly-Asp-Ser (GRGDS) sequence and sugar moieties, was synthesized for the culturing of parenchymal cells (hepatocytes). Hepatocyte cells attached to poly[N-p-vinylbenzyl-d-maltonamide-co-6-(p-vinylbenzamido)-hexanoic acid-GRGDS] [poly(VMA-co-VBRGD)]-coated dishes grew approximately 60% better than on other polymer-coated surface for 12 h. Also, about 80% greater albumin secretion (0.38 pg ml–1) and about 70% greater urea synthesis (0.495 pg ml–1) from hepatocytes were produced in this matrix as compared with unstimulated cells. The behaviour of hepatocytes on poly(VMA-co-VBGRGDS)-coated dishes was not distinct from those attached to a collagen. The conjugation of the adhesion molecules of the RGD peptide in the poly(VMA-co-VBGRGDS) copolymer therefore specifically interacts with integrin families on the hepatocyte cell membrane.  相似文献   
3.
William Julius Wilson’s model of adult joblessness, community disorganization and their effects on youth problem behaviour de-emphasizes the range in children’s outcomes across socially disorganized communities, and says little about the factors that influence this variation. It also does not address the processes by which family structure and relationships affect the well-being of African-American and poor youth. My work is part of a larger research agenda that has begun to address these issues by focusing on the differential rates of sexual activity among youth living in disadvantaged environments, and developing models to explain this variation. This work suggests that units of socially cohesive, stable adults exist among the social networks of successful children and families in poor neighbourhoods. It also points to the existence and functioning of alternative two-parent family structures and offers hypotheses for how family environment interacts with neighbourhood context to influence youth behaviour.  相似文献   
4.
Human pancreatic stellate cells (HPSCs) are an essential stromal component and mediators of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) progression. Small extracellular vesicles (sEVs) are membrane-enclosed nanoparticles involved in cell-to-cell communications and are released from stromal cells within PDAC. A detailed comparison of sEVs from normal pancreatic stellate cells (HPaStec) and from PDAC-associated stellate cells (HPSCs) remains a gap in our current knowledge regarding stellate cells and PDAC. We hypothesized there would be differences in sEVs secretion and protein expression that might contribute to PDAC biology. To test this hypothesis, we isolated sEVs using ultracentrifugation followed by characterization by electron microscopy and Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis. We report here our initial observations. First, HPSC cells derived from PDAC tumors secrete a higher volume of sEVs when compared to normal pancreatic stellate cells (HPaStec). Although our data revealed that both normal and tumor-derived sEVs demonstrated no significant biological effect on cancer cells, we observed efficient uptake of sEVs by both normal and cancer epithelial cells. Additionally, intact membrane-associated proteins on sEVs were essential for efficient uptake. We then compared sEV proteins isolated from HPSCs and HPaStecs cells using liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry. Most of the 1481 protein groups identified were shared with the exosome database, ExoCarta. Eighty-seven protein groups were differentially expressed (selected by 2-fold difference and adjusted p value ≤0.05) between HPSC and HPaStec sEVs. Of note, HPSC sEVs contained dramatically more CSE1L (chromosome segregation 1–like protein), a described marker of poor prognosis in patients with pancreatic cancer. Based on our results, we have demonstrated unique populations of sEVs originating from stromal cells with PDAC and suggest that these are significant to cancer biology. Further studies should be undertaken to gain a deeper understanding that could drive novel therapy.  相似文献   
5.
《Developmental cell》2021,56(22):3082-3099.e5
  1. Download : Download high-res image (280KB)
  2. Download : Download full-size image
  相似文献   
6.
The open reading frames of 17 connexins from Syrian hamster (using tissues) and 16 connexins from the Chinese hamster cell line V79, were fully (Cx30, Cx31, Cx37, Cx43 and Cx45) or partially sequenced. We have also detected, and partially sequenced, seven rat connexins that previously were unavailable. The expression of connexin genes was examined in some hamster organs and cultured hamster cells, and compared with wild-type mouse and the cancer-prone Min mouse. Although the expression patterns were similar for most organs and connexins in hamster and mouse, there were also some prominent differences (Cx29 and 30.3 in testis; Cx31.1 and 32 in eye; Cx46 in brain, kidney and testis; Cx47 in kidney). This suggests that some connexins have species-specific expression profiles. In contrast, there were minimal differences in expression profiles between wild type and Min mice. Species-specific expression profiles should be considered in attempts to make animal models of human connexin-associated diseases.  相似文献   
7.
By using newly hatched (approximately 2 weeks old) brown trout(Salmo trutta) from six families of wild and six families ofsea-ranched origin (seventh generation), we tested the hypothesesthat (1) the hatchery environment selects for increased boldness,and (2) boldness predicts dominance status. Sea-ranched troutspend their first 2 years in the hatchery before being releasedinto the wild at the onset of seaward migration. Trout werepresented with a novel object (tack) and with food (brine shrimp),and their responses were measured and scored in terms of boldness.Siblings with increasing difference in boldness were then pairedin dyadic contests. Fish of sea-ranged origin were on averagebolder than were fish of wild origin, and bolder individualswere more likely to become dominant regardless of origin. Boldnesswas not related to RNA levels, indicating that bold behaviorwas not a consequence of higher metabolism or growth rate. Neitherwas size a predictor of bold behavior or the outcome of dyadiccontests. These results are consistent with studies on olderlife stages showing increased boldness toward predators in hatchery-selectedfish, which suggests that behavioral consequences of hatcheryselection are manifested very early in life. The concordancebetween boldness and dominance may suggest that these behaviorsare linked in a risk prone-aggressive phenotype, which may bepromoted by hatchery selection. However, we also found significantvariation in behavioral and growth-related traits among families,suggesting that heritable variation has not been exhausted bysea-ranching procedures.  相似文献   
8.
Oxidative stress has been linked to the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy, the complication of diabetes in the kidney. NADPH oxidases of the Nox family, and in particular the homologue Nox4, are a major source of reactive oxygen species in the diabetic kidney and are critical mediators of redox signaling in glomerular and tubulointerstitial cells exposed to the diabetic milieu. Here, we present an overview of the current knowledge related to the understanding of the role of Nox enzymes in the processes that control mesangial cell, podocyte and tubulointerstitial cell injury induced by hyperglycemia and other predominant factors enhanced in the diabetic milieu, including the renin-angiotensin system and transforming growth factor-β. The nature of the upstream modulators of Nox enzymes as well as the downstream targets of the Nox NADPH oxidases implicated in the propagation of the redox processes that alter renal biology in diabetes will be highlighted.  相似文献   
9.
Identification of different protein functions facilitates a mechanistic understanding of Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) infection and opens novel means for drug development. Support vector machines (SVM), useful for predicting the functional class of distantly related proteins, is employed to ascribe a possible functional class to Japanese encephalitis virus protein. Our study from SVMProt and available JE virus sequences suggests that structural and nonstructural proteins of JEV genome possibly belong to diverse protein functions, are expected to occur in the life cycle of JE virus. Protein functions common to both structural and non-structural proteins are iron-binding, metal-binding, lipid-binding, copper-binding, transmembrane, outer membrane, channels/Pores - Pore-forming toxins (proteins and peptides) group of proteins. Non-structural proteins perform functions like actin binding, zinc-binding, calcium-binding, hydrolases, Carbon-Oxygen Lyases, P-type ATPase, proteins belonging to major facilitator family (MFS), secreting main terminal branch (MTB) family, phosphotransfer-driven group translocators and ATP-binding cassette (ABC) family group of proteins. Whereas structural proteins besides belonging to same structural group of proteins (capsid, structural, envelope), they also perform functions like nuclear receptor, antibiotic resistance, RNA-binding, DNA-binding, magnesium-binding, isomerase (intra-molecular), oxidoreductase and participate in type II (general) secretory pathway (IISP).  相似文献   
10.
Abstract: This study focuses on the sex ratio and spatial distribution of males and females in three populations of the endemic and restricted tropical dioecious shrub, Baccharis concinna (Asteraceae) in the mountainous region of Serra do Cipó, southeastern Brazil. The proportion of female plants in the population at lower elevation (1000 m a.s.l.) was significantly greater than of male plants. At this elevation of P/N and Ca/Al ratios in the soil were also greater indicating better nutritional status of the soils. The concentration of aluminium increased significantly with the elevation ( p < 0.001), perhaps rendering soils less conducive to female plants at higher elevations. Female plants are possibly adversely affected to a greater extent by soil quality than male plants. The spatial distribution of the populations within habitat was tested by the K(t) function, where the neighbourhood of a given individual was defined by a circle with a radius (t) up to 3 m. Despite the strong tendency for aggregation, the distribution of the sexes within habitats was random and the hypothesis was not supported. The independent distribution of the sexes within habitats may be explained by nutrient homogeneity of the soils, as well as by an absence of antagonism between the sexes. Nevertheless, we found a trend for males and females to be aggregated according to their gender.  相似文献   
设为首页 | 免责声明 | 关于勤云 | 加入收藏

Copyright©北京勤云科技发展有限公司  京ICP备09084417号