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2.
Summary Equivalent-circuit impedance analysis experiments were performed on the urinary bladders of freshwater turtles in order to quantify membrane ionic conductances and areas, and to investigate how changes in these parameters are associated with changes in the rate of proton secretion in this tissue. In all experiments, sodium reabsorption was inhibited thereby unmasking the electrogenic proton secretion process. We report the following: (1) transepithelial impedance is represented exceptionally well by a simple equivalent-circuit model, which results in estimates of the apical and basolateral membrane ionic conductances and capacitances; (2) when sodium transport is inhibited with mucosal amiloride and serosal ouabain, the apical and basolateral membrane conductances and capacitances exhibit a continual decline with time; (3) this decline in the membrane parameters is most likely caused by subtle time-dependent changes in cell volume, resulting in changes in the areas of the apical and basolateral membranes; (4) stable membrane parameters are obtained if the tissue is not treated with ouabain, and if the oncotic pressure of the serosal solution is increased by the addition of 2% albumin; (5) inhibition of proton secretion using acetazolamide in CO2 and HCO 3 -free bathing solutions results in a decrease in the area of the apical membrane, with no significant change in its specific conductance; (6) stimulation of proton transport with CO2 and HCO 3 -containing serosal solution results in an increase in the apical membrane area and specific conductance. These results show that our methods can be used to measure changes in the membrane electrophysiological parameters that are related to changes in the rate of proton transport. Notably, they can be used to quantify in the live tissue, changes in membrane area resulting from changes in the net rates of endocytosis and exocytosis which are postulated to be intimately involved in the regulation of proton transport.  相似文献   
3.
K. M. Wright  K. J. Oparka 《Planta》1989,179(2):257-264
The highly fluorescent dye Lucifer Yellow CH (LYCH), now in common use in microinjection studies, has been shown to enter the vacuole of a range of plant-cell protoplasts from the external medium. Uptake was quantified by lysing the protoplasts following incubation and determining the amount of LYCH incorporated by spectrofluorimetry. Uptake was biphasic with respect to both time and substrate concentration, enhanced at low pH and inhibited by low temperature and metabolic inhibitors. The kinetics of uptake showed several similarities with those reported for the fluid-phase endocytosis of LYCH in animal cells and yeast cells. A calculated membrane permeability coefficient for LYCH, based on the observed rates of uptake, was too high to be consistent with simple diffusion of the undissociated form of the molecule and inconsistent with the membrane-impermeant properties of the dye. The data are discussed in the light of the possibility of fluid-phase endocytosis versus active transmembrane transport.Abbreviations CCCP carbonyl cyanide M-chlorophenyl hydrazone - LYCH Lucifer Yellow CH  相似文献   
4.
Summary Endocytosis via the hyaluronic acid/chondroitin sulphate receptor of rat liver endothelial cells was studied ultrastructurally, by use of a probe consisting of chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan attached to 15-nm gold particles. The probe bound to the surface of the cells exclusively in coated regions of the plasma membrane. Internalization at 37° C took place in less than one minute during which time interval the bound probe was transferred to coated vesicles. Further transfer to lysosomes was delayed in association with an accumulation of probes in a prelysosomal compartment consisting of large vacuoles in which probes lined the inner aspect of the membrane. Transport to lysosomes occurred only after a lag phase of at least 40–60 min at 37° C.Abbreviations CS chondroitin sulphate - CSPG chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan - CSPG-Au CSPG-gold complex - EM electronmicroscopical or electron microscopy - HA hyaluronic acid - KC Kuppfer cells - LEC liver endothelial cells - PC parenchymal cells - RES reticuloendothelial system  相似文献   
5.
Plant coated vesicles   总被引:2,自引:1,他引:1  
Abstract. Coated vesicles are organelles frequently encountered in many plant cell types often in association with the plasma membrane, Golgi apparatus, partially coated reticulum and multivesicular bodies. They are readily identified by a characteristic cage or basket composed of interlocking triskelions of the protein clathrin which are bound to the surface of the vesicle membrane. Although their transport function has been well studied and characterized in mammalian systems, the possible importance of coated vesicles as transport organelles in plant cells is only just beginning to be explored. In this review, the authors describe the structure of higher plant coated vesicles and discuss their possible involvement in the endocytosis of marcromolecules, in exocytosis and in the intracellular transport of material between cytoplasmic compartments. Their possible role in maintaining the macromolecular composition of the plasma membrane whilst allowing recycling of excess lipid bilayer and their potential application as vehicles for the introduction of foreign macromolecules into plant cells are discussed.  相似文献   
6.
Summary Proton secretion in the urinary bladder of the fresh-water turtle is mediated by a proton pump located in the apical membrane of a population of cells characteristically rich in carbonic anhydrase. Earlier studies have demonstrated that these cells exhibit apical-membrane endocytotic and exocytotic processes which are thought to be involved in the regulation of the rate of proton transport via alterations in the number of pumps within the apical membrane. In this study, we sought to characterize these processes using two different methods. Analysis of transepithelial impedance yielded estimates of membrane capacitance which could be related to membrane area, thereby allowing one to monitor net changes in apical-membrane area resulting from changes in the net rates of endo-and exocytosis. Uptake of the fluid-phase marker FITC-dextran provided a measure of net extracellular volume uptake which was related to net rates of endocytosis. Our major conclusions are summarized as follows. The bladder cells exhibit a high baseline rate of endocytosis which appears to be a constitutive process similar to pinocytosis. This process is completely inhibited when ambient temperature is reduced to 15°C. In addition, serosal application of 0.5mm acetazolamide causes a transient increase in the rate of endocytosis, concomitant with a decrease in the rate of transport. Reduction of ambient temperature to 15°C reduces the rate of acetazolamide-induced endocytosis, but does not abolish it. Addition of 1mm serosal azide not only prevents the acetazolamide-induced increase in endocytosis, but also prevents the decrease in transport caused by acetazolamide. Azide has no effect on the baseline rate of endocytosis, nor does it prevent inhibition of carbonic anhydrase by acetazolamide. The specificity of azide, coupled with the different temperature sensitivities, demonstrate that the constitutive and transport-dependent endocytotic pathways are distinct processes. The observation that azide prevents both the acetazolamide-induced increase in endocytosis and the decrease in transport strongly supports the notion that endocytosis of proton-pump-containing membrane is requisite for the inhibition of transport by acetazolamide. Finally, the results also demonstrate that acetazolamide does not inhibit proton secretion simply by inhibiting carbonic anhydrase.  相似文献   
7.
Inhibition of endocytosis from coated pits by acidification of the cytosol   总被引:8,自引:0,他引:8  
Binding and endocytosis of the ligands transferrin, epidermal growth factor (EGF), and ricin were measured in a number of different cell lines after treatment of cells with compounds that react with SH-groups and under conditions where the cytosolic pH was lowered. N-ethylmalemide and diamide irreversibly inhibited endocytosis of all ligands tested, whereas low pH in the cytosol strongly inhibited endocytosis of transferrin and EGF. Data obtained by electron microscopy indicated that the formation of coated vesicles from coated pits is inhibited in acidified cells. Entry of ricin was much less affected, and ricin endocytosed under these conditions was able to intoxicate the cells. At low pH in the cytosol there was a calcium-dependent increase in the number of transferrin receptors at the cell surface. The increase was even larger in the presence of the calcium ionophore A23187, whereas it was completely blocked by the calmodulin antagonists trifluoperazine and W7. The results show that endocytosis from coated pits can be inhibited in a reversible way by acidification of the cytosol and they suggest that a second pathway of endocytosis exists, possibly involving formation of vesicles from uncoated areas of the membrane.  相似文献   
8.
We have prepared liposomes containing methotrexate-γ-dimyristoylphosphatidylethanolamine (MTX-DMPE liposomes), to which protein A was covalently coupled, permitting specific association of these liposomes in vitro with murine cells preincubated with relevant protein A-binding monoclonal antibodies. In the absence of antibody the presence of externally-oriented methotrexate (MTX) in MTX-DMPE liposomes did not result in greater binding to cells than liposomes made without MTX-γ-DMPE. Derivation of methotrexate with phospholipid permits enhanced drug-liposome association. These liposomes are more resistant than conventional liposomes to repeated cycles of freezing and thawing. MTX-DMPE liposomes are comparable to antibody-targeted liposomes made with encapsulated water-soluble methotrexate both with respect to specific binding to target cells and drug effect. The inhibitory effects off MTX-liposomes, as well as free MTX, were reversible by either thiamin pyrophosphate (Tpp) or N5-formyltetrahydrofolate (F-THF), while the effects of MTX-DMPE liposomes were reversed only by N5-formyltetrahydrofolate. This suggests that the toxicity of non-targeted MTX-liposomes may be due to leakage of the encapsulated MTX. The absence of an effect of thiamin pyrophosphate on non-targeted MTX-DMPE liposomes indicates that they do not enter into the cell via the normal folate transport system.  相似文献   
9.
Summary Participation of calmodulin, clathrin, and actin in receptor mediated endocytosis of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) was studied in an in vitro system of dispersed pituitary cells with a triple staining procedure. Cells were incubated in D-Lys6-Pro9-Des10-GnRH-biotin and stained with avidin-peroxidase-diaminobenzidine. Calmodulin, clathrin, and actin as well as luteinizing hormone were identified by indirect immunofluorescence with FITC- and rhodamine-labeled second antibody. The results indicate a close spatial association of calmodulin, but not of clathrin and actin, with GnRH-containing plasma membrane patches.Supported by PHS grants NIH NS1761401, HS 09914, and HD 19899  相似文献   
10.
Summary Immunocytochemistry has been used to study distribution of cell surface transferrin receptors in erythroid, leukemic (K562) cells. The cells were fixed and labelled with monoclonal (OKT-9) anti-transferrin receptor antibodies; the antibody-labelled receptors were then detected by either immunofluoresceinor immunoferritin-antimouse-antibody conjugates. Typically, the immunoferritin labels were distributed diffusely at the non-coated regions of the cell surface as well as concentrated in the clathrincoated pits. To examine further this pattern of distribution, cells were labelled at 0° C and then warmed to 37° C for zero to 30 min prior to fixation. The majority of the immunoferritin labels were initially dispersed in small groups at the non-coated regions of the cell surface (mean = 6 immunoferritin labels/cluster), but larger groups were common subsequent to incubation at 37° C (mean = 13 immunoferritin labels/cluster). However, the size of immunoferritin labels in the coated pits was unchanged (mean = 12 immunoferritin labels/pit). Immunoferritin labels were typical in coated and uncoated vesicles l min after warming to 37° C, but common in endosomes, multivesicular bodies and lysosomes by 30 min. It appears that single cell-surface receptors form large aggregates prior to their concentration in coated pits. Coated vesicles, uncoated vesicles, and endosomal vacuoles may together form the non-lysosomal compartment where the internalized receptors might be dissociated from the ligands (antibodies).  相似文献   
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