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In this research, a proto-type study we have conducted, where we have synthesized tungsten based composite materials which are tungsten along with combined oxides of other elements like calcium, scandium, barium, and aluminium in the form of powder with bones powder of mice devised by high energy ball mill and later on fabricating high dense pellets by sintering by spark plasma. The particle sizes of the composite materials are found to be 1–2 µm, as evidenced by the electron microscope, suggesting synthesized materials are of micron size. The quantitative and qualitative analysis of sintered pellets are well confirmed by electron probe micro analyzer (EPMA) and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS) which illustrate the greater percentage of tungsten presents in the profound scan areas with other elements of the composite. The absence of pores across the 3D geometry suggesting dense sample, which is quite revealed by the X-ray tomography inspection. The prepared sintered pellets from the tungsten based composites are found to be ≈ 99.5% density with the observation of tungsten to be accumulated uniformly across the scan regions along with focussed hot spots as implied by EPMA. This study paves the way, to examine how the tungsten accumulation and the distribution with the other elements for future understanding in bone tissue engineering application and the in vivo specification of tungsten.  相似文献   
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The effect of specific residues on the kinetic stability of two closely related triosephosphate isomerases (from Trypanosoma cruzi, TcTIM and Trypanosoma brucei, TbTIM) has been studied. Based on a comparison of their β‐turn occurrence, we engineered two chimerical enzymes where their super secondary β‐loop‐α motifs 2 ((βα)2) were swapped. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) experiments showed that the (βα)2 motif of TcTIM inserted into TbTIM (2Tc) increases the kinetic stability. On the other hand, the presence of the (βα)2 motif of TbTIM inserted into TcTIM (2Tb) gave a chimerical protein difficult to purify in soluble form and with a significantly reduced kinetic stability. The comparison of the contact maps of the (βα)2 of TbTIM and TcTIM showed differences in the contact pattern of residues 43 and 49. In TcTIM these residues are prolines, located at the N‐terminal of loop‐2 and the C‐terminal of α‐helix‐2. Twelve mutants were engineered involving residues 43 and 49 to study the effect over the unfolding activation energy barrier (EA). A systematic analysis of DSC data showed a large decrease on the EA of TcTIM (ΔEA ranging from 468 to 678 kJ/mol) when the single and double proline mutations are present. The relevance of Pro43 to the kinetic stability is also revealed by mutation S43P, which increased the free energy of the transition state of TbTIM by 17.7 kJ/mol. Overall, the results indicate that protein kinetic stability can be severely affected by punctual mutations, disturbing the complex network of interactions that, in concerted action, determine protein stability. Proteins 2017; 85:571–579. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.  相似文献   
4.
This paper reports the response of isopods exposed to fallout of a municipal solid waste landfill located in central Italy. Soil samples and specimens of Armadillidium vulgare were collected at different distances from the landfill and analyzed to determine the concentrations of heavy elements such as As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, Sb, V and Zn. The isopod analysis was performed on unpurged and purged specimens. Analytical data indicate that the soil contents of heavy elements were quite uniform and within the respective local geochemical background. Slight enrichments of Cu and Pb were found in some soils collected within the solid waste. Purged isopods showed an accumulation of As, Co, Cr, Ni, Sb and V whose body levels decreased as the distance from the landfill increased. Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn concentrations in purged specimens were rather uniform and no significant variation trend occurred. This result probably was due to the fact that the isopods are provided with physiological mechanisms of regulation for these heavy elements. Analytical data also indicate the ability of A. vulgare to adsorb differently the heavy elements according to the following order: As > Co > Ni > Pb > V. The contents of heavy elements in unpurged specimens were higher than in purged ones. This finding suggested that the defecation has marked effects on the tissue levels of heavy elements in isopods. This study indicates that the isopods provide useful information about environmental quality in areas characterized by low and discontinuous emission of heavy elements and their low accumulation in soil.  相似文献   
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To enable large-scale antibody production, the creation of a stable, high producer cell line is essential. This process often takes longer than 6 months using standard limited dilution techniques and is very labor intensive. The use of a tri-cistronic vector expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP) and both antibody chains, separated by a GT2A peptide sequence, allows expression of all proteins under a single promotor in equimolar ratios. By combining the advantages of 2A peptide cleavage and single cell sorting, a chimeric antibody-antigen fusion protein that contained the variable domains of mouse IgG with a porcine IgA constant domain fused to the FedF antigen could be produced in CHO-K1 cells. After transfection, a strong correlation was found between antibody production and GFP expression (r = 0.69) using image analysis of formed monolayer patches. This enables the rapid selection of GFP-positive clones using automated image analysis for the selection of high producer clones. This vector design allowed the rapid selection of high producer clones within a time-frame of 4 weeks after transfection. The highest producing clone had a specific antibody productivity of 2.32 pg/cell/day. Concentrations of 34 mg/L were obtained using shake-flask batch culture. The produced recombinant antibody showed stable expression, binding and minimal degradation. In the future, this antibody will be assessed for its effectiveness as an oral vaccine antigen.  相似文献   
6.
Summary Two previously identified forms of macrophage were investigated in primary cultures of cerebral cortical cells. Dynamic features were revealed through time-lapse video recording and aspects of macrophage function were assessed. The two cell forms were shown to be different pre-mitotic stages of a single cell type. The cell cycle for these cells involved an initial large, flat, quiescent cell which retracted to yield a slightly rounded form with numerous processes. This latter form lost processes and developed profuse filopodia as it became very rounded just prior to division; both resulting daughter cells then regained the initial large flat appearance. These cells possessed several properties of macrophages, including phagocytosis, nucleoside diphosphatase enzyme, and CR3 receptors. These properties were transient, expressed just before and after mitosis, but subsequently down-regulated in the flat daughter cells. Because of this feature, it was difficult to determine the exact size of this cell population; however, the observed rate of proliferation suggests it may be substantial. It is suggested that these cells correspond to non-microglial macrophages of brain tissue and, because of their significant down-regulation, they may be difficult to detect. This may be important in studies of brain accessory immune cells in tissue culture.  相似文献   
7.
Computer-aided antibody engineering has been successful in the design of new biologics for disease diagnosis and therapeutic interventions. Interleukin-6 (IL-6), a well-recognized drug target for various autoimmune and inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and psoriasis, was investigated in silico to design potential lead antibodies. Here, crystal structure of IL-6 along with monoclonal antibody olokizumab was explored to predict antigen–antibody (Ag???Ab)-interacting residues using DiscoTope, Paratome, and PyMOL. Tyr56, Tyr103 in heavy chain and Gly30, Ile31 in light chain of olokizumab were mutated with residues Ser, Thr, Tyr, Trp, and Phe. A set of 899 mutant macromolecules were designed, and binding affinity of these macromolecules to IL-6 was evaluated through Ag???Ab docking (ZDOCK, ClusPro, and Rosetta server), binding free-energy calculations using Molecular Mechanics/Poisson Boltzman Surface Area (MM/PBSA) method, and interaction energy estimation. In comparison to olokizumab, eight newly designed theoretical antibodies demonstrated better result in all assessments. Therefore, these newly designed macromolecules were proposed as potential lead antibodies to serve as a therapeutics option for IL-6-mediated diseases.  相似文献   
8.
Clostridium tyrobutyricum ATCC 25755 is known as a natural hyper-butyrate producer with great potentials as an excellent platform to be engineered for valuable biochemical production from renewable resources. However, limited transformation efficiency and the lack of genetic manipulation tools have hampered the broader applications of this micro-organism. In this study, the effects of Type I restriction-modification system and native plasmid on conjugation efficiency of C. tyrobutyricum were investigated through gene deletion. The deletion of Type I restriction endonuclease resulted in a 3.7-fold increase in conjugation efficiency, while the additional elimination of the native plasmid further enhanced conjugation efficiency to 6.05 ± 0.75 × 103 CFU/ml-donor, which was 15.3-fold higher than the wild-type strain. Fermentation results indicated that the deletion of those two genetic elements did not significantly influence the end-products production in the resultant mutant ΔRMIΔNP. Thanks to the increased conjugation efficiency, the CRISPR-Cas9/Cpf1 systems, which previously could not be implemented in C. tyrobutyricum, were successfully employed for genome editing in ΔRMIΔNP with an efficiency of 12.5–25%. Altogether, approaches we developed herein offer valuable guidance for establishing efficient DNA transformation methods in nonmodel micro-organisms. The ΔRMIΔNP mutant can serve as a great chassis to be engineered for diverse valuable biofuel and biochemical production.  相似文献   
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Homeobox genes encode a group of DNA binding regulatory proteins whose key function occurs in the spatial-temporal organization of genome during embryonic development and differentiation. The role of these Hox genes during ontogenesis makes it an important model for research. HoxA5 is a member of Hox gene family playing a central role during axial body patterning and morphogenesis. DNA modification studies have shown that the function of Hox genes is partly governed by the methylation-mediated gene expression regulation. Therefore the study aimed to investigate the role of epigenetic events in regulation of tissue-specific expression pattern of HoxA5 gene during mammalian development. The methodology adopted were sodium bisulfite genomic DNA sequencing, quantitative real-time PCR and chromatin-immunoprecipitation (ChIP). Methylation profiling of HoxA5 gene promoter shows higher methylation in adult as compared to fetus in various somatic tissues of mouse being highest in adult spleen. However q-PCR results show higher expression during fetal stages being highest in fetal intestine followed by brain, liver and spleen. These results clearly indicate a strict correlation between DNA methylation and tissue-specific gene expression. The findings of chromatin-immunoprecipitation (ChIP) have also reinforced that epigenetic event like DNA methylation plays important role in the regulation of tissue specific expression of HoxA5.  相似文献   
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