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Many insects undergo diapause to survive adverse seasons. Although the mechanism of diapause induction is the subject of extensive study, that of diapause termination remains poorly understood. In the present study, we show the endocrine processes leading to the termination of pupal diapause in Mamestra brassicae. Diapause of this insect is terminated if the pupae are exposed to a low temperature for several weeks. During this period, the prothoracic glands (PGs) of pupae acquire the potential to secrete sufficient ecdysteroids necessary for inducing adult development. The main endocrine changes observed under the low temperature conditions are: (i) the increase in activity of the PGs in two steps; (ii) the increase in responsiveness of the glands to prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH); and (iii) two‐step increase in PTTH gene expression in the brain. The timing of the first and second increases in PG activity roughly coincides with that of the two steps of increase in PTTH gene expression, and the timing of the increase in the responsiveness of the PGs to PTTH coincides with the second, larger increase in PTTH gene expression. The ablation of the PGs prior to cooling pupae does not affect the increase in PTTH gene expression, whereas brain removal results in a failure to increase PG activity, strongly suggesting that PTTH is the master regulator of diapause development and termination.  相似文献   
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A partial swine cDNA which encodes the functional domain of PIT-1 was isolated by the polymerse chain reaction (PCR). The swine PIT-1 cDNA clone is 95% identical at the protein level to the rat Pit-1 gene. Thus, Pit-l's known function in control of rat growth hormone and prolactin expression is likely to be conserved in swine. This swine cDNA clone was used to investigate genetic variability at PIT-1 in several American and Chinese breeds. Polymorphic BamIII fragments were found in pure-bred Meishan animals (n= 13), but only monomorphic fragments in five American breeds (n= 36).  相似文献   
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After significant injury, the liver must maintain homeostasis during the regenerative process. We hypothesized the existence of mechanisms to limit hepatocyte proliferation after injury to maintain metabolic and synthetic function. A screen for candidates revealed suppressor of cytokine signaling 2 (SOCS2), an inhibitor of growth hormone (GH) signaling, was strongly induced after partial hepatectomy. Using genetic deletion and administration of various factors we investigated the role of SOCS2 during liver regeneration. SOCS2 preserves liver function by restraining the first round of hepatocyte proliferation after partial hepatectomy by preventing increases in growth hormone receptor (GHR) via ubiquitination, suppressing GH pathway activity. At later times, SOCS2 enhances hepatocyte proliferation by modulating a decrease in serum insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) that allows GH release from the pituitary. SOCS2, therefore, plays a dual role in modulating the rate of hepatocyte proliferation. In particular, this is the first demonstration of an endogenous mechanism to limit hepatocyte proliferation after injury.  相似文献   
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目的比较雄性Fmr1基因敲除小鼠和FVB小鼠血液生理生化值和血清性激素水平,探讨Fmr1基因对动物生长发育和生殖生理等方面的影响。方法分别测定血液生理指标、血清生化指标、血清电解质和血清E2、LH、FSH、T和PRL的含量,并进行统计学处理和分析。结果雄性Fmr1基因敲除小鼠与FVB小鼠比较,血液生理指标中MCV和PCT有显著差异(P〈0.05),而RBC、HCT、HGB、MCH和WBC等无显著差异(P〉0.05);血清生化指标中除TBIL、[IP^3+]、[Mg^2+](P〈0.05)和AIP、BUN(P〈0.01)外,TPROT、GLB、A/G、BUN、CREAT、[K^+]、[Na^+]等项均无显著差异(P〉0.05)。性激素水平E2、LH值差异无显著性(P〉0.05),FSH、T、PRL差异极显著(P〈0.01)。结论Fmr1基因可影响动物的某些生理生化及激素水平。  相似文献   
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GH plays an essential role in the growing child by binding to the growth hormone receptor (GHR) on target cells and regulating multiple growth promoting and metabolic effects. Mutations in the GHR gene coding regions result in GH insensitivity (dwarfism) due to a dysfunctional receptor protein. However, children with idiopathic short stature (ISS) show growth impairment without GH or GHR defects. We hypothesized that decreased expression of the GHR gene may be involved. To test this, we investigated whether common genetic variants (microsatellites, SNPs) in regulatory regions of the GHR gene region were associated with the ISS phenotype. Genotyping of a GT‐repeat microsatellite in the GHR 5′UTR in a Montreal ISS cohort (n = 37 ISS, n = 105 controls) revealed that the incidence of the long/short (L/S) genotype was 3.3× higher in ISS children than controls (P = 0.04, OR = 3.85). In an Italian replication cohort (n = 143 ISS, n = 282 controls), the medium/short (M/S) genotype was 1.9× more frequent in the male ISS than controls (P = 0.017, OR = 2.26). In both ISS cohorts, logistic regression analysis of 27 SNPs showed an association of ISS with rs4292454, while haplotype analysis revealed specific risk haplotypes in the 3′ haploblocks. In contrast, there were no differences in GT genotype frequencies in a cohort of short stature (SS) adults versus controls (CARTaGENE: n = 168 SS, n = 207 controls) and the risk haplotype in the SS cohort was located in the most 5′ haploblock. These data suggest that the variants identified are potentially genetic markers specifically associated with the ISS phenotype.  相似文献   
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Two novel small molecule gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) receptor antagonists (12 and 13) of the furamide-class were synthesized and evaluated in vitro for their receptor binding affinities for the rat GnRH receptor. Radiolabeling with no carrier added fluorine-18 of the appropriate precursors was investigated in a one-step reaction. Log P (Octanol/PBS pH 7.4) and serum stability of the compounds were investigated. The antagonists showed low nM affinity for the rat GnRH receptor. 18F-radiolabled compounds were obtained in high radiochemical purity (>95%) and specific activity (>75 GBq/μmol). These findings suggest this class of compounds holds promise as potential probes for PET targeting of GnRH-receptor expression.  相似文献   
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Summary
The gene encoding the porcine growth hormone (GH) has been localized to the q-arm of chromosome 12 using high-resolution R-banded chromosomes for in situ hybridization. We report here the localization of GH on the p-arm of this chromosome when using in situ hybridization on high-resolution G-banded chromosomes. Sequential Q- and R-banding show that this discrepancy is caused by a reversed orientation of chromosome 12 in the R-banded high-resolution karyotype published by Rønne et al. (1987) and the G-banded standard karyotype.  相似文献   
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