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排序方式: 共有1025条查询结果,搜索用时 46 毫秒
1.
To assess the impact of HIV‐infection and highly active anti‐retroviral treatment in mitochondria and apoptotic activation of caspases during pregnancy and their association with adverse perinatal outcome. Changes of mitochondrial parameters and apoptotic caspase activation in maternal peripheral blood mononuclear cells were compared at first trimester of pregnancy and delivery in 27 HIV‐infected and ‐treated pregnant women versus 24 uninfected pregnant controls. We correlated immunovirological, therapeutic and perinatal outcome with experimental findings: mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) content, mitochondrial protein synthesis, mitochondrial function and apoptotic caspase activation. The HIV pregnancies showed increased adverse perinatal outcome (OR: 4.81 [1.14–20.16]; P < 0.05) and decreased mtDNA content (42.66 ± 5.94%, P < 0.01) compared to controls, even higher in naïve participants. This depletion caused a correlated decrease in mitochondrial protein synthesis (12.82 ± 5.73%, P < 0.01) and function (20.50 ± 10.14%, P < 0.001), not observed in controls. Along pregnancy, apoptotic caspase‐3 activation increased 63.64 ± 45.45% in controls (P < 0.001) and 100.00 ± 47.37% in HIV‐pregnancies (P < 0.001), in correlation with longer exposure to nucleoside analogues. HIV‐infected women showed increased obstetric problems and declined genetic and functional mitochondrial parameters during pregnancy, especially those firstly exposed to anti‐retrovirals. The apoptotic activation of caspases along pregnancy is emphasized in HIV pregnancies promoted by nucleoside analogues. However, we could not demonstrate direct mitochondrial or apoptotic implication in adverse obstetric outcome probably because of the reduced sample size.  相似文献   
2.
Classic polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a high-risk phenotype accompanied by increased risks of reproductive and metabolic abnormalities; however, the local metabolism characteristics of the ovaries and their effects on germ cell development are unclear. The present study used targeted metabolomics to detect alterations in the intermediate metabolites of follicular fluid from classic PCOS patients, and the results indicated that hyperandrogenism but not obesity induced the changed intermediate metabolites in classic PCOS patients. Regarding the direct contact, we identified mitochondrial function, redox potential, and oxidative stress in cumulus cells which were necessary to support oocyte growth before fertilization, and suggested dysfunction of mitochondria, imbalanced redox potential, and increased oxidative stress in cumulus cells of classic PCOS patients. Follicular fluid intermediary metabolic profiles provide signatures of classic PCOS ovary local metabolism and establish a close link with mitochondria dysfunction of cumulus cells, highlighting the role of metabolic signal and mitochondrial cross talk involved in the pathogenesis of classic PCOS.  相似文献   
3.
I. Sternberg, R. Rona, S. Olsfanger, S. Lew and I. Leibovitch The clinical significance of class III (suspicious) urine cytology Background: Urine cytology, combined with cystoscopy, is the mainstay of the diagnosis and surveillance of urothelial carcinoma (UC). While classes I and II urine cytology are considered benign and classes IV and V are considered malignant the clinical significance of class III urine cytology is unclear. We evaluated the positive predictive value of class III urine cytology for concurrent and subsequent UC. Methods: The records of all class III urine cytology cases during a 3‐year period were retrospectively reviewed for the presence of concurrent and subsequent UC, determined by cystoscopy and histological confirmation. Results: Of 111 cases, 54 (48.7%) were associated with concurrent UC and 14 (12.6%) with subsequent UC after an initial evaluation negative for malignancy, with a mean time to diagnosis of 10.8 months. Of 27 cases of class III urine cytology with no prior history of UC, 13 (48.1%) had concomitant UC and none had subsequent UC. Of 84 cases of class III urine cytology with a prior history of UC, 41 (48.8%) had a concomitant diagnosis of UC and 14 (16.7%) developed UC during their follow‐up, leading to a total of 55 (65.5%) cases of UC. Conclusions: Patients with class III urine cytology and a prior history of UC should undergo a full initial evaluation of their urinary tract, and should be followed vigorously if this evaluation is negative for malignancy. Patients without a prior diagnosis of UC and class III urine cytology should also undergo a full initial evaluation, while further larger studies are needed to elucidate the need for further follow‐up in such patients.  相似文献   
4.
We find support for the hypothesis that changes in the monthly odds of a twin among live-born males predict subsequent and opposite changes in the odds of a twin among live-born females. The hypothesis arises from the long standing argument that natural selection has conserved mechanisms by which pregnant women in stressed populations spontaneously abort fetuses least likely to yield grandchildren. Previous attempts to empirically test this argument focus almost entirely on males. We contribute to the literature by showing that, consistent with the logic of natural selection, maternal adaptations to environmental changes likely have effects on the survival of both male and female conceptuses and fetuses.  相似文献   
5.
The purpose of this study was to determine a practical method in Wapiti (Cervus elaphus) of using predetermined sexed Sika (Cervus nippon) semen. Semen was collected by electro-ejaculation from one stag of proven fertility and transported to the laboratory where it was retained as unsorted (control) or was separated into X- and Y-chromosome-bearing sperm using a modified high-speed cell sorter. Wapiti hinds (n = 81) were inseminated into the uterus by rectum manipulation with 1 × 106 (X1 and Y1 group, respectively) or 2 × 106 (X2 and Y2 group, respectively) of sorted frozen-thawed and 1 × 107 non-sorted frozen-thawed (a commercial dose control) Sika motile sperm 60–66 h after removal of intra-vaginal progesterone-impregnated CIDR devices and administration of 700 IU of PMSG at the time of CIDR removal. The percentage of hinds calving after insemination was similar for X1 (38.5%), X2 (41.7%), Y1 (44.4%), Y2 (38.9%) groups (P > 0.05), but higher for control (75%) treatment (P < 0.05). Ultimately 15 out of the 16 Sika and Wapiti-hybrid calves produced by Wapiti hinds inseminated with Y-sorted sperm were male (93.7%) and 10/10 (100%) Sika and Wapiti-hybrid calves from hinds inseminated with X-sorted sperm were female. The sex ratio of the Sika and Wapiti-hybrid calves born to hinds inseminated with sex-sorted sperm deviated significantly (P < 0.05) from 50% and 50.0% in the control group. All Sika and Wapiti-hybrid calves were born between 237 and 250 d of gestation. Male and female calves in the control group had similar birth weights and weaning weights as calves from hinds inseminated with X- or Y-sorted sperm. In conclusion it can be said that normal Sika and Wapiti-hybrid calves of predicted sex can be produced after artificial insemination of Wapiti does with low numbers of sex-sorted cryopreserved Sika sperm.  相似文献   
6.
A. Risso 《Theriogenology》2010,73(7):984-987
Two experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of the GnRH antagonist acyline (330 μg/kg, given sc) on ovarian follicular development and ovulation, as well as on pregnancy maintenance in domestic cats. In the first experiment, seven queens in proestrus (total of 24 proestrus periods), were randomly assigned to treatment with either acyline (ACY; n = 17) or a placebo (PLC; n = 7). All queens were mated with a fertile tomcat. In the ACY and PLC groups, cessation of estrus occurred (mean ± SEM) 7.0 ± 1.3 and 7.0 ± 1.7 d after treatment (P > 0.1), ovulation occurred in 2 of 17 and all seven estrus periods (P < 0.05), and pregnancy rates were 1 of 16 and 7 of 7 (P < 0.05), respectively. In the ACY and PLC groups, intervals from treatment to the onset of the ensuing proestrus were 18.4 ± 1.7 and 120 ± 17.2 d. In the second experiment, 14 pregnant queens were randomly allocated, according to their mating date, to treatment with acyline in early pregnancy (from 20 to 25 d, n = 3), mid pregnancy (from 26 to 45 d; n = 4), late pregnancy (> 45 d; n = 3), or injection of a placebo in early (n = 1), mid (n = 2), or late pregnancy (n = 1). Ultrasonographic assessments of the uterus were done every second day for 2 wk post treatment, and serum progesterone (P4) concentrations were determined before treatment, and at 7 and 14 d after treatment. No pregnancies were prematurely terminated and post-treatment P4 concentrations did not differ among treatment groups (P > 0.1). In conclusion, in the domestic cat, GnRH withdrawal by acyline prevented ovulation when given in early follicular phase (proestrus), but did not significantly affect luteal function during pregnancy.  相似文献   
7.
The aim of our study was to examine the influence of 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-xanthine (IBMX), an inhibitor of cyclic adenosine monophosphate and cyclic guanosine monophosphate phosphodiesterases, on the reproductive efficiency of gonadotropin-stimulated rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus, Leporidae, Lagomorpha). The ovarian cycle and ovulation of control rabbits was induced by pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) followed by administration of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG; first series of experiments) or gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH; second series of experiments). Experimental animals received PMSG and hCG together with IBMX (at 5 or 25 μg/animal) or GnRH together with IBMX (at 50 or 500 μg/animal). After ovulation and mating, in the first series of experiments, animals were killed; the pronuclear-stage eggs were flushed from the oviducts and cultured up to blastocyst cell stage. Numbers of ovarian corpora lutea, ovulated oocytes, and oocyte-derived embryos reaching blastocyst stage were determined. In the second series of experiments, all the animals were kept until parturition, when the pregnancy and birth rate, litter size, and number, viability, and body weight of pups were recorded. IBMX injections at doses of 5 or 25 μg/animal significantly increased the number of ovulations/corpora lutea, harvested zygotes, and embryos derived from these zygotes. Administration of IBMX at doses of 500 μg/animal or 50 μg/animal to nulliparous young animals (4.5 mo of age) significantly increased their pregnancy rate and birth rate, litter size, and litter weight. In multiparous old animals (2 yr of age), IBMX at a dose of 50 μg/animal, but not 500 μg/animal, significantly increased their pregnancy rate and litter size, but not the birth rate, number of pups per female, or litter weight. These data demonstrate that (1) IBMX can enhance the stimulatory effect of GnRH/gonadotropins on rabbit ovulation, oocyte maturation, embryo yield and development, pregnancy and birth rate, and number, viability, and body weight of pups; (2) nulliparous young females (4.5 mo of age) are more sensitive to IBMX treatments than the multiparous old animals (2 yr of age); and (3) cyclic nucleotides-dependent intracellular mechanisms are involved in control of rabbit reproductive functions and IBMX, an activator of these mechanisms, can be a stimulator of reproduction and fertility.  相似文献   
8.
The ECF™ lateral flow assay test is marketed to detect non-pregnancy in mares. The objectives of the present study were to determine the accuracy of the ECF test, the accuracy of the electronic reader accompanying the ECF test, and agreement between two human readers and the electronic reader. Serum samples were collected from anestrus, cycling but not inseminated, and inseminated mares, and were evaluated with the ECF™ test (EDP Biotech Company, Knoxville, TN, USA) at The Ohio State University and at the EDP Biotech Laboratory. Specificity ranged from 0.07 to 0.16, the negative predictive value ranged from 0.15 to 0.33, and accuracy ranged from 0.43 to 0.52. The electronic reader did not add improve the accuracy or predictive values of the test. Based on the electronic reader, 80.0% of the serum samples collected from the anestrus mares were false positives; Readers 1 and 2 had 60.0 and 33.3% false positives, respectively. For samples collected during the estrous cycle, 83.9% were false positives by the electronic reader, whereas Readers 1 and 2 had 43.7 and 26.4% false positives. We concluded that, regardless of whether the test strips were evaluated by a human or electronic reader, this assay was not accurate for determination of the non-pregnant mare.  相似文献   
9.
ObjectiveApproximately one third of patients who have suffered a stroke develop spasticity. Since clinical observations that spasticity in the elderly population is lower after stroke, and disagreement about risk factors between different authors, an analysis is performed on the variables that influence the development of spasticity.The objective of the study is to determine the how many factors influence spasticity outcome, and the prevalence of spasticity in patients who have suffered a stroke and require intensive rehabilitation treatment.MethodA retrospective assessment was carried out on a total of 554 patients from two neurorehabilitation centres. A record was made of sociodemographic data, aetiology, type and location of stroke, motor and sensory deficits, language and swallowing impairment, incontinence, cognitive and mood state. Spasticity levels at admission and at the third month were studied in 462 patients using the Ashworth scale. Multivariate regression analyses were used to assess the risk factors for spasticity present at the third month after stroke.ResultsThe mean age of the patients was 67.3 years, of which 67.1% were men, and with ischemic aetiology in 76.5%. On admission 31.4% of patients had spasticity, and this increased to 54.8% at the 3rd month. The absolute risk factor for spasticity was motor index (OR 1.04; 95% CI 1.03-1.05). When this factor was omitted, the variables with predictive ability were: age less than 75 years (OR 0.52; 95% CI 0.30-0.90), sensory impairment (OR 0.66; 95% CI 0.37-1.20), and lower Barthel index score (OR 1.02; 95% CI 1.01-1.03). There was no significant relationship for gender, physiopathological mechanism (ischaemic/haemorrhagic), stroke location, aphasia, or cognitive impairment.ConclusionThe prevalence of spasticity in stroke at third month of follow-up was 54.8%. Motor index is the independent predictor of spasticity. Patients younger than 75 years old, with sensory impairment and low Barthel index score are more likely to develop spasticity.  相似文献   
10.
In Callithrix jacchus the urinary excretion of hydroxypregnanolone (5 alpha-pregnane-3 alpha, 7 alpha-diol-20-one) shows a luteal rise during the ovulatory cycle. This progesterone metabolite can therefore be used as an indication of ovulation, implantation, and subsequently for the persistence of the pregnancy. The excretion can be monitored by high performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC) and postchromatographic derivatization after enzymatic hydrolysis of the conjugate. Profiles of urinary hydroxypregnanolone levels are presented and correlated with luteinizing hormone excretion. The method is noninvasive and therefore suited for long-term studies in these monkeys.  相似文献   
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