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1.
辽宁省菜田生态系统组分优势值与系统优势度分析   总被引:2,自引:1,他引:1  
辽宁省菜田生态系统组分优势值与系统优势度分析周宝利,葛晓光李宁义(沈阳农业大学园艺系,110161)(沈阳市城建中专,110013)AnalysisonSuperiorityValueandDominanceDegreeofVariousCompon...  相似文献   
2.
Despite widespread and its local available as a naturalized hedge and shade plant, the potential of Trichilia emetica was not utilized in soap making by the majority of local community in various parts of Dodoma, Tanzania. This study aimed to assess the quantity (yields) and quality (Acid Values (AVs), %Free Fatty Acids (%FFAs) and Saponification Values (SVs) of seed oil from water plant (T. emetica), suitable for soap making application. Solvent extraction method was used during oil extraction, where by 50gm of preheated and powdered seed materials were immersed in 250 ml of n-hexane in 1:5 (w/v) to dissolve the oil contained in the seed cake. The oil was collected by vaporizing solvent out through Rotary evaporation at 60 °C. Also standard titration methods were used to obtain SVs, AVs and %FFAs of the extracted oil. Results showed that T. emetica seeds contained higher quantity of oil (48.4%−50.2%) than many reported commercial plant seed oils. Also, the study found higher AV (7.4 mgKOH/g−7.8 mgKOH/g), %FFA (3.7% to 3.9%) and SVs (189.5 mgKOH/g 191.4 mgKOH/g) than the maximum acceptable limits of 0.50 mg KOH/g, 0.020% and 175 mgKOH/g − 187 mgKOH/g prescribed by ASTM standards (2002). The obtained results showed that, T. emetica seeds yielded high oil quantity with low qualities due to higher levels of acidity. But high SVs guarantees the possibility of using T. emetica seed oil in soap making. However, the oil requires purification in order to bring levels of acidity to acceptable standards and guarantee its normal use in soap making.  相似文献   
3.
Honey is a natural food item produced by honey bees. Ancient civilizations considered honey as a God gifted prestigious product. Therefore, a huge literature is available regarding honey importance in almost all religions. Physically, honey is a viscous and jelly material having no specific color. Chemically, honey is a complex blend of many organic and inorganic compounds such as sugars, proteins, organic acids, pigments, minerals, and many other elements. Honey use as a therapeutic agent is as old as human civilization itself. Prior to the appearance of present day drugs, honey was conventionally used for treating many diseases. At this instant, the modern research has proven the medicinal importance of honey. It has broad spectrum anti-biotic, anti-viral and anti-fungal activities. Honey prevents and kills microbes through different mechanism such as elevated pH and enzyme activities. Till now, no synthetic compound that works as anti-bacterial, anti-viral and anti-fungal drugs has been reported in honey yet it works against bacteria, viruses and fungi while no anti-protozoal activity has been reported. Potent anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-cancerous activities of honey have been reported. Honey is not only significant as anti-inflammatory drug that relieve inflammation but also protect liver by degenerative effects of synthetic anti-inflammatory drugs. This article reviews physico-chemical properties, traditional use of honey as medicine and mechanism of action of honey in the light of modern scientific medicinal knowledge.  相似文献   
4.
This study estimates the economic values of and the dominant contributors to five key ecosystem services of wetlands in Beijing, by using the wetland inventory data in 2014 and economic valuation methods. Results indicate that the 51,434 ha of wetlands in Beijing annually provide 2.07 billion m3 of flood regulation, 944.01 million m3 of water provision, 42,154 tons of chemical oxygen demand (COD) purification, 3.03 PJ of heat absorption, and 9587 ha of habitat. Their economic values are estimated to be 15.89 billion RMB, 1.19 billion RMB, 169 million RMB, 421 million RMB, and 1.08 billion RMB in 2014 (RMB: Chinese currency, US$1 = RMB 6.14), respectively. The total values of five key wetland ecosystem services reach 18.76 billion RMB. In addition, the reservoir and river wetlands in Miyun, Yanqing, Fangshan, Huairou, and Mentougou Districts contribute 78% of key ecosystem services, whereas the urban wetlands in Xicheng, Dongcheng, Haidian, Chaoyang, and Tongzhou Districts more conveniently serve densely local people, hence they should be given particular attentions. In this paper, we develop the valuation methods of wetland ecosystem services, and recommend diversified strategies, regulations, and programs to protect the remaining wetlands in Beijing. This work can also provide a reference for the valuating of wetland ecosystem services for other urban-rural areas.  相似文献   
5.
In this paper, the ecological integrity hierarchy framework (EIHF) and the natural capital index framework (NCI) are integrated as decision-making tools for evaluating the natural capital of Mexico. Two hierarchy-levels of ecological integrity indicators are used to estimate the quality and quantity of the natural capital, the amount of ecological degradation and ecological sustainability. After human transformation, the extent still considered as “natural” in the country is ∼67%; while the amount of human transformed areas is ∼33%, which gives a total estimate of NCI = 0.334; i.e., only ∼33.4% of the national capital remains available, while ∼33% is ecologically degraded. Furthermore, the critical natural capital; i.e., the legacy for future generations that remains in the country is only ∼12%. The total estimated value of the current natural capital in Mexico is ∼$457.1 billion/yr, which is ∼435 times greater than the national GDP ($1.051 billion in 2010). The cost of maintaining the degradation of the natural capital is ∼$144.6 billion/yr (∼138 times greater than national GDP in 2010). The potential value of the natural capital after restoration would be ∼$602 billion/yr. Valuing the natural capital can be helpful for strategic environmental evaluations and useful for spatial decision support systems that evaluate natural capital as a decision-making tool.  相似文献   
6.
江西高天岩自然保护区生态系统服务功能价值评估   总被引:4,自引:2,他引:2  
缪建群  孙松  王志强  黄国勤 《生态学报》2017,37(19):6422-6430
高天岩自然保护区位于江西省莲花县,为当地人提供了多项生态服务功能。根据高天岩自然保护区生态与社会经济系统的特征,构建其生态系统服务功能价值评估指标体系,并以2014年数据为基础,综合运用成本替代、市场价值、影子工程、造林成本、成果参数和旅行费用等定量分析方法,评估其生态系统的经济价值。结果表明:2014年,高天岩自然保护区生态系统服务总经济价值为7.20×10~8元,其中,土壤保持和固碳释氧的经济价值居前两位,分别为4.39×10~8元和1.16×10~8元,各占服务总经济价值的60.89%和16.11%。9项服务指标按评估的经济价值大小排序为:土壤保持固碳释氧产品供给生物多样性保护环境净化气候调节旅游休憩调洪蓄水社会保障。直观的经济数字反映了高天岩自然保护区生态系统对人类社会的重要贡献,一方面有利于强化管理者和公众保护高天岩自然保护区的意识,另一方面为政府制定高天岩自然保护区生态系统补偿标准提供数据支撑。  相似文献   
7.
Land use changes sharply under rapid urbanization, yet its ecological and environmental effects are often neglected in land use decisions. Using the case of Hangzhou, China, we analyze the ecological and environmental effects of land use changes, including ecosystem services value (ESV) and carbon emissions, based on Landsat TM images from 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2014. We found significant ecological and environmental effects of land use changes under rapid urbanization. The value of ecosystem services in Hangzhou decreased from 546.7 million USD in 1995 to 448.97 million USD in 2014, and the ratio of ESV to GDP decreased from 5.8% to 0.6%. The net carbon emissions associated with land use changes increased from 4.26 million tons in 1995 to 15.10 million tons in 2014, mainly due to the increase of built-up land carbon emissions and the decrease of forest land carbon sink. The ESV is unevenly distributed spatially and low ESV spread from the central to the peripheral area. We use scenario analysis to illustrate that economic growth and environmental protection could be coordinated by bringing ecological and environmental effects into land use decisions.  相似文献   
8.
自然保护区规划是保护生物多样性的有效方式.传统保护区规划方法只能识别物种保护的重点区域,无法科学确定保护区的适宜面积.地块选择方法基于数学模型,从规划区域中选择部分地块组成自然保护区,保护特定物种或生态系统,是缓解生态保护与开发利用矛盾的重要手段.现有地块选择法未考虑各单元生态差异,且最优化算法存在计算效率的瓶颈.本文首先构建适用于森林生态系统的生态值赋分评价体系,据此计算戴云山生态值并绘制其分布图;然后,结合生态值建立生态集合覆盖模型(ESCP),并基于ESCP嵌入空间紧凑性提出空间生态集合覆盖模型(SSCP);最后,利用寻优性能良好的自学习禁忌搜索算法(STS)搜索各保护目标下的近似最优选址方案,给出福建省戴云山现有建成区优化方案.结果表明: 戴云山生态值计算结果在空间分布上存在明显差异;ESCP比原集合覆盖模型(SCP)能产生生态值更高的选址方案;SSCP在ESCP基础上对生态值较高区域有聚集作用,且周长权重越大,聚集效果越明显;建议现保护区可向外拓展136 km2,并将西北向分布长苞铁杉的地块纳入保护区范围.研究结果为实现戴云山保护区可持续发展及土地资源优化配置提供了优化方案,也可为我国森林生态系统类型的自然保护区设计提供新思路.  相似文献   
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10.
The latitudinal decline of species richness is a general spatial pattern of biodiversity, and it applies to marine species as well. Based on a latitudinal gradient of marine species richness, potential stocks of marine ecosystem services are expected to be higher in lower latitudes through increment in biodiversity. However, little is known about the relationships of the marine ecosystem services with latitude and biodiversity. We estimated the latitudinal patterns and relationships with the biodiversity of potential stocks of three major reef fish-based ecosystem services (fisheries production, aquarium fish production, and recreational diving) at ten coral habitats from tropical to temperate zones in the Kuroshio Current region (8°37′N–33°24′N) using field survey data and information from relevant websites and administrative statistics. We found a latitudinal declin from south to north in potential stocks of aquarium fish production and diving in this region, whereas the peaks of fisheries production were found around both tropical and sub-tropical zones. Our results also showed strong positive effects of biodiversity on potential stocks of the three ecosystem services, highlighting the importance of conserving diverse fish species to sustain multiple services at high levels. Broad spatial patterns of the reef fish-based ecosystem services are useful as baselines for future evaluation of their changes. As the effects of climate change on reef fishes are predicted to vary among different latitude zones, our estimates of the ecosystem services infer specific management and economic actions for the respective zones against climate change.  相似文献   
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