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Suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3) regulates the proinflammatory cytokine signaling mediated by the JAK/STAT signaling pathway. SOCS3 is rapidly induced and then targeted to the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway via a mechanism that requires the C-terminal SOCS box. Due to its rapid turnover, the intracellular stores of SOCS3 seem insufficient to control acute or protracted inflammatory diseases. Previously, we developed an intracellular protein therapy that uses a recombinant cell-penetrating form of SOCS3 (CP-SOCS3) to inhibit the JAK/STAT pathway and prevent cytokine-mediated lethal inflammation and apoptosis of the liver (Jo, D., Liu, D., Yao, S., Collins, R. D., and Hawiger, J. (2005) Nat. Med. 11, 892–898). The potent anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective activity of CP-SOCS3 prompted us to analyze its intracellular turnover, as compared with that of endogenous SOCS3 protein induced in macrophages by the proinflammatory agonists, interferon-γ and lipopolysaccharide. We found that the half-life (t½) of endogenous SOCS3 is 0.7 h in activated macrophages, compared with a t½ of 6.2 h for recombinant CP-SOCS3. Deletion of the SOCS box in CP-SOCS3 renders it more resistant to proteasomal degradation, extending its t½ to 29 h. Consequently, this SOCS box-deleted form of CP-SOCS3 displays persistent inhibitory activity for 24 h toward interferon-γ- and lipopolysaccharide-induced cytokine and chemokine production. Compared with the wild-type suppressor, this gain-of-function CP-SOCS3 mutant provides a longer acting inhibitor of cytokine signaling, a feature that offers a clear advantage for the intracellular delivery of proteins to treat acute or protracted inflammatory diseases.  相似文献   
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Kv7 channels, especially Kv7.2 (KCNQ2) and Kv7.3 (KCNQ3), are key determinants for membrane excitability in the brain. Some chemical modulators of KCNQ channels are in development for use as anti-epileptic drugs, such as retigabine (D-23129, N-(2-amino-4-(4-fluorobenzylamino)-phenyl)), which was recently approved for clinical use. In addition, several other compounds were also reported to potentiate activity of the Kv7 channels. It is therefore of interest to investigate compound-channel interactions, so that more insights may be gained to aid future development of therapeutics. We have conducted a screen of 20,000 compounds for KCNQ2 potentiators using rubidium flux combined with atomic absorption spectrometry. Here, we report the characterization of a series of new structures that display isoform specificity and induce a marked reduction of deactivation distinct from that of retigabine. Furthermore, KCNQ2(W236L), a previously reported mutation that abolishes sensitivity to retigabine, remains fully sensitive to these compounds. This result, together with mutagenesis and other studies, suggests that the reported compounds confer a unique mode of action and involve new molecular determinants on the channel protein, consistent with the idea of recognizing a new site on channel protein.  相似文献   
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The antimalarial drugs artemisinins have been described as inhibiting Ca2+-ATPase activity of PfATP6 (Plasmodium falciparum ATP6) after expression in Xenopus oocytes. Mutation of an amino acid residue in mammalian SERCA1 (Glu255) to the equivalent one predicted in PfATP6 (Leu) was reported to induce sensitivity to artemisinin in the oocyte system. However, in the present experiments, we found that artemisinin did not inhibit mammalian SERCA1a E255L either when expressed in COS cells or after purification of the mutant expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Moreover, we found that PfATP6 after expression and purification from S. cerevisiae was insensitive to artemisinin and significantly less sensitive to thapsigargin and 2,5-di(tert-butyl)-1,4-benzohydroquinone than rabbit SERCA1 but retained higher sensitivity to cyclopiazonic acid, another type of SERCA1 inhibitor. Although mammalian SERCA and purified PfATP6 appear to have different pharmacological profiles, their insensitivity to artemisinins suggests that the mechanism of action of this class of drugs on the calcium metabolism in the intact cell is complex and cannot be ascribed to direct inhibition of PfATP6. Furthermore, the successful purification of PfATP6 affords the opportunity to develop new antimalarials by screening for inhibitors against PfATP6.  相似文献   
6.
Cell surface pili are polymeric protein assemblies that enable bacteria to adhere to surfaces and to specific host tissues. The pili expressed by Gram-positive bacteria constitute a unique paradigm in which sortase-mediated covalent linkages join successive pilin subunits like beads on a string. These pili are formed from two or three distinct types of pilin subunit, typically encoded in small gene clusters, often with their cognate sortases. In Group A streptococci (GAS), a major pilin forms the polymeric backbone, whereas two minor pilins are located at the tip and the base. Here, we report the 1.9-Å resolution crystal structure of the GAS basal pilin FctB, revealing an immunoglobulin (Ig)-like N-terminal domain with an extended proline-rich tail. Unexpected structural homology between the FctB Ig-like domain and the N-terminal domain of the GAS shaft pilin helps explain the use of the same sortase for polymerization of the shaft and its attachment to FctB. It also enabled the identification, from mass spectral data, of the lysine residue involved in the covalent linkage of FctB to the shaft. The proline-rich tail forms a polyproline-II helix that appears to be a common feature of the basal (cell wall-anchoring) pilins. Together, our results indicate distinct structural elements in the pilin proteins that play a role in selecting for the appropriate sortases and thereby help orchestrate the ordered assembly of the pilus.  相似文献   
7.
N-Functionalized amino(hydroxymethyl)cyclopentanetriols are potent inhibitors of β-d-galactosidases and, for the first time, could be shown to act as pharmacological chaperones for GM1-gangliosidosis-associated lysosomal acid β-galactosidase thus representing a new structural type of pharmacological chaperones for this lysosomal storage disease.  相似文献   
8.
Haloperidol (HPL), well known antipsychotic drug can induce a marked QT prolongation and polymorphic arrhythmias. In this study we evaluated the influence of various induced risk factors such as electrolyte imbalance (hypokalemia and hypomagnesemia), gender difference, low pacing frequency, ischemia reperfusion insult on electrophysiological effect by haloperidol on electrically driven action potentials recorded from guinea pig papillary muscle. The doses of HPL ranging from 1 to 16 μM were used in this investigation. Action potentials (APs) were elicited electrically and recorded by classical microelectrode technique. HPL caused dose dependent prolongation of APD90 the final stage of repolarization, increased triangulation, and led into dispersion of action potential, conduction delay and conduction block. Magnitude of the effect of haloperidol was amplified significantly by most of the risk factors. Among the various risk factors, electrolyte imbalance (hypokalemia, hypomagnesemia) caused more amplification of HPL effect. Most of the risk factors amplified prolongation of APD90 by HPL. This effect is mainly due to the influence of these electrolytes and sex hormone on various ion channels involved in the repolarization phase of cardiac AP. This is the first report which provides an experimental evidence of amplification of electrophysiological effects of HPL in the presence of various risk factors.  相似文献   
9.
Somatic mutations in the Jak2 protein, such as V617F, cause aberrant Jak/STAT signaling and can lead to the development of myeloproliferative neoplasms. This discovery has led to the search for small molecule inhibitors that target Jak2. Using structure-based virtual screening, our group recently identified a novel small molecule inhibitor of Jak2 named G6. Here, we identified a structure-function correlation of this compound. Specifically, five derivative compounds of G6 having structural similarity to the original lead compound were obtained and analyzed for their ability to (i) inhibit Jak2-V617F-mediated cell growth, (ii) inhibit the levels of phospho-Jak2, phospho-STAT3, and phospho-STAT5; (iii) induce apoptosis in human erythroleukemia cells; and (iv) suppress pathologic cell growth of Jak2-V617F-expressing human bone marrow cells ex vivo. Additionally, we computationally examined the interactions of these compounds with the ATP-binding pocket of the Jak2 kinase domain. We found that the stilbenoid core-containing derivatives of G6 significantly inhibited Jak2-V617F-mediated cell proliferation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. They also inhibited phosphorylation of Jak2, STAT3, and STAT5 proteins within cells, resulting in higher levels of apoptosis via the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Finally, the stilbenoid derivatives inhibited the pathologic growth of Jak2-V617F-expressing human bone marrow cells ex vivo. Collectively, our data demonstrate that G6 has a stilbenoid core that is indispensable for maintaining its Jak2 inhibitory potential.  相似文献   
10.
Assessment of the potential risks posed by chlorinated solvents in groundwater is the key to establish the extent of the contamination and derive achievable remedial targets should remediation deems necessary. This article first presents the application of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Risk Based Corrective Actions (RBCA) Guidance to quantitatively evaluate human health and environmental risk for a former chemical works in Shanghai, China. The observed maximum trichloroethylene (TCE) concentration in groundwater at the site reached 1220 mg/l that exceeded its solubility of 1070 mg/l at 10°C (Soil annual average temperature is 10°C in Shanghai). The maximum concentration for cis-1, 2-DCE (DCE) was also found to be elevated at 264 mg/l. A critical exposure pathway was considered to be indoor vapor intrusion of TCE into the buildings with excess lifetime cancer risk for children being 1.7 × 10?3. This cancer risk exceeded regulatory limits of 1 × 10?4 to 1 × 10?6 for The Netherlands, the United Kingdom, and the United States. The calculated groundwater remedial targets for TCE and DCE are 7 mg/l and 904 mg/l, respectively, in order to protect child residents from inhalation of indoor vapors within the close proximity of the source area.  相似文献   
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