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2.
The initiation of invertebrate distribution patterns in rivers occurs by choice of oviposition sites and is influenced by the evolved reproductive strategies of the individual species. Subsequent redistribution by migration or drifting establishes patterns which are then modified by environmental influences on growth and mortality. Continuity of life cycles is sustained by variations on a number of defined life history strategies combined with evolved behavioural responses.  相似文献   
3.
Sexual selection influences the evolution of morphological traits that increase the likelihood of monopolizing scarce resources. When such traits are used during contests, they are termed weapons. Given that resources are typically linked to monopolizing mating partners, theory expects only males to bear weapons. In some species, however, females also bear weapons, although typically smaller than male weapons. Understanding why females bear smaller weapons can thus help us understand the selective pressures behind weapon evolution. However, most of our knowledge comes from studies on weapon size, while the biomechanics of weapons, such as the size of the muscles, efficiency, and shape are seldom studied. Our goal was to test if the theoretical expectations for weapon size sexual dimorphism also occur for weapon biomechanics using two aeglid crab species. Males of both species had larger claws which were also stronger than female claws. Male claws were also more efficient than females' claws (although we used only one species in this analysis). For weapon shape, though, only one species differed in the mean claw shape. Regarding scaling differences, in both species, male claws had higher size scaling than females, while only one species had a higher shape scaling. However, male weapons did not have higher scaling regarding strength and efficiency than females. Thus, males apparently allocate more resources in weapons than females, but once allocated, muscle and efficiency follow a similar developmental pathway in both sexes. Taken together, our results show that sexual dimorphism in weapons involves more than differences in size. Shape differences are especially intriguing because we cannot fully understand its causes. Yet, we highlight that such subtle differences can only be detected by measuring and analysing weapon shape and biomechanical components. Only then we might better understand how weapons are forged.  相似文献   
4.
Fender’s blue butterfly is an endangered species restricted to fragmented, grassland remnants that are becoming increasingly dominated by tall, invasive grasses in western Oregon, USA. I performed a removal experiment to assess the impacts of structural degradation accompanying the invasion of Arrhenatherum elatius, tall oat grass, on butterfly fitness and fitness related behaviors. Clipping of A. elatius to native grass sward height resulted in 2.5–5 times as many eggs laid per leaf of host plant. Both male and female butterflies basked more frequently in areas removed of A. elatius inflorescences and upon encountering the treatment edge butterflies had a high rate of return into a large area removed of the grass inflorescences. Although butterfly behavior appeared to be affected by the change in sward height on the treatment edge, there was no evidence for the edge causing a disproportionate egg load. Invasion and dominance by A. elatius appeared to diminish host plant apparency which may result in overloading of eggs on conspicuous host plants, increased incidence of emigration, and a decrease in the likelihood of colonization because female butterflies appeared indifferent to larval resources beneath A. elatius inflorescences. Dominance of natural shortgrass prairies by tall stature grasses like A. elatius may be an insidious form of habitat degradation for grassland Lepidoptera worldwide, but it may go largely unnoticed because larval and adult resources can persist under the unnaturally tall grass canopy.  相似文献   
5.
Strong selection to secure paternity in polyandrous species leads to the evolution of numerous chemicals in the male's seminal content. These include antiaphrodisiac pheromones, which are transmitted from the male to the female during mating to render her unattractive to subsequent males. An increasing number of species have been shown to use these chemicals. Herein, I examine the taxonomic distribution of species using antiaphrodisiac pheromones, the selection pressures driving their evolution in both males and females, and the ecological interactions in which these pheromones are involved. The literature review shows a highly skewed distribution of antiaphrodisiac use; all species currently known to use them are insects with the exception of the garter snakes Thamnophis sirtalis parietalis and T. radix. Nonetheless, many taxa have not yet been tested for the presence of antiaphrodisiacs, in groups both closely and distantly related to species known to express them. Within the Insecta, there have been multiple cases of convergent evolution of antiaphrodisiac pheromones using different chemical compounds and methods of transmission. Antiaphrodisiacs usually benefit males, but their effect on females is variable as they can either prevent them from mating multiple times or help them reduce male harassment when they are unreceptive. Some indirect costs of antiaphrodisiacs also impact both males and females, but more research is needed to determine how general this pattern is. Additional research is also important to understand how antiaphrodisiacs interact with the reproductive biology and sexual communication in different species.  相似文献   
6.
The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) plays a key role in disease resistance and is the most polymorphic gene region in vertebrates. Although habitat fragmentation is predicted to lead to a loss in MHC variation through drift, the impact of other evolutionary forces may counter this effect. Here we assess the impact of selection, drift, migration, and recombination on MHC class II and microsatellite variability in 14 island populations of the Aegean wall lizard Podarcis erhardii. Lizards were sampled from islands within the Cyclades (Greece) formed by rising sea levels as the last glacial maximum approximately 20,000 before present. Bathymetric data were used to determine the area and age of each island, allowing us to infer the corresponding magnitude and timing of genetic bottlenecks associated with island formation. Both MHC and microsatellite variation were positively associated with island area, supporting the hypothesis that drift governs neutral and adaptive variation in this system. However, MHC but not microsatellite variability declined significantly with island age. This discrepancy is likely due to the fact that microsatellites attain mutation‐drift equilibrium more rapidly than MHC. Although we detected signals of balancing selection, recombination and migration, the effects of these evolutionary processes appeared negligible relative to drift. This study demonstrates how land bridge islands can provide novel insights into the impact of historical fragmentation on genetic diversity as well as help disentangle the effects of different evolutionary forces on neutral and adaptive diversity.  相似文献   
7.
A key challenge in marker-assisted selection (MAS) for molecular plant breeding is to develop markers linked to genes of interest which are applicable to multiple breeding populations. In this study representative F2 plants from a cross Mandalup (resistant to anthracnose disease) × Quilinock (susceptible) of Lupinus angustifolius were used in DNA fingerprinting by Microsatellite-anchored Fragment Length Polymorphism (MFLP). Nine candidate MFLP markers linked to anthracnose resistance were identified, then ‘validated’ on 17 commercial cultivars. The number of “false positives” (showing resistant-allele band but lack of the R gene) for each of the nine candidate MFLP markers on the 17 cultivars ranged from 1 to 9. The candidate marker with least number of false positive was selected, sequenced, and was converted into a co-dominant, sequence-specific, simple PCR based marker suitable for routine implementation. Testing on 180 F2 plants confirmed that the converted marker was linked to the R gene at 5.1 centiMorgan. The banding pattern of the converted marker was consistent with the disease phenotype on 23 out of the 24 cultivars. This marker, designated “AnManM1”, is now being used for MAS in the Australian lupin breeding program. We conclude that generation of multiple candidate markers, followed by a validation step to select the best marker before conversion to an implementable form is an efficient strategy to ensure wide applicability for MAS.  相似文献   
8.
金乌贼繁殖行为与交配策略   总被引:5,自引:0,他引:5  
2014年6月于室内大型水槽使用摄像系统对金乌贼繁殖过程进行连续观察与记录,通过定性和定量比较分析,解析其繁殖过程中游泳、捕食、求偶、争斗、交配及产卵等行为特征。结果显示:金乌贼游泳主要依靠漏斗喷水的反作用力,持续游泳能力较弱;繁殖期的金乌贼继续摄食,能发现周围20—38 cm范围内的凡纳滨对虾,攻击距离为7—24 cm,能在2.1—6.1 s内完成对对虾的捕获且成功率极高,外源营养为卵(精)巢不同步发育、分批产卵和复杂的繁殖行为继续提供能量支持;金乌贼具明显的求偶行为,规格差异是影响求偶的重要因素,其中雄性亲本更倾向选择与自身规格相当或略小的雌性,而雌性亲本则更倾向于选择大规格(较大规格争斗易获胜)的雄性;金乌贼一次交配持续125—398 s,雄性有明显的精子移除行为和领域性,交配后雄性伴游在雌性周围3—24 cm范围内,不允许其他乌贼靠近,平均伴游61 min后会再次交配。精子移除、伴游以及多次交配是雄性金乌贼有效提高父权贡献率的关键行为基础;研究结果表明,金乌贼采取"多夫多妻"的混交婚配策略,两性亲本均存在多次交配现象,这能有效提高雌雄的生殖成功率和受精卵的遗传多样性。  相似文献   
9.
1. The abundance of insect herbivores is mediated by interactions with higher and lower trophic levels. This research asks (i) how phenological change across trophic levels affects host plant quality and selection for aphids, and (ii) what higher trophic level mechanisms drive aphid abundance. 2. Ligusticum porteri is a perennial host for the sap-feeding aphid Aphis asclepiadis and intraguild mirid predators (chiefly Lygus hesperus) in Colorado. We used long-term observational data to discover that aphids and mirids respond differently to phenological cues. These unique responses can impact aphid abundance through changes to host plant selection and quality. 3. We used behavioural choice assays to assess how advanced mirid phenology influences aphid host plant selection. More alates landed and reproduced on mirid-free control plants relative to host plants with prior mirid feeding. However, this preference did not correlate with aphid performance when we compared aphid relative growth rates between treatments. This suggests that advanced mirid phenology would impact aphid populations more through host plant choice, rather than reductions in host quality. The addition of mirids to experimental aphid colonies also demonstrated reduced aphid colony growth via predation. 4. We measured plant cues involved in host selection and found differences in volatile composition between plants with prior mirid feeding compared to control plants, providing the potential for aphids to detect enemy-free space using volatile cues.  相似文献   
10.
Birds in which both sexes produce complex songs are thought to be more common in the tropics than in temperate areas, where typically only males sing. Yet the role of phylogeny in this apparent relationship between female song and latitude has never been examined. Here, we reconstruct evolutionary changes in female song and breeding latitude in the New World blackbirds (Icteridae), a family with both temperate and tropical representatives. We provide strong evidence that members of this group have moved repeatedly from tropical to temperate breeding ranges and, furthermore, that these range shifts were associated with losses of female song more often than expected by chance. This historical perspective suggests that male-biased song production in many temperate species is the result not of sexual selection for complex song in males but of selection against such songs in females. Our results provide new insights into the differences we see today between tropical and temperate songbirds, and suggest that the role of sexual selection in the evolution of bird song might not be as simple as we think.  相似文献   
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