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1.
The unique capabilities of EPR spin trapping of nitric oxide based on a ferrous-dithiocarbamate spin trap have been demonstrated in a study verifying the source of the nitrogen and oxygen atoms in nitric oxide produced from activated macrophages. Spin trapping experiments were performed during nitric oxide generation from activated mouse peritoneal macrophages using the ferrous complex of N-methyl D-glucam-ine dithiocarbamate as a spin trap. When 15N-substituted arginine was given to the activated macrophages in the presence of the spin trap, a characteristic EPR spectrum of the nitric oxide spin adduct was obtained, which indicates the presence of the l5N atom in the nitric oxide molecule. The hyperfine splitting (hfs) constant of the l5N nucleus was 17.6 gauss. When l7O-containing dioxygen (55%) was supplied to the medium, an EPR spectrum consistent with the “O-substituted nitric oxide spin adduct was observed in the composite spectrum. The hfs of “O was estimated to be 2.5 gauss. The l4NO spin adduct observed after prolonged incubation in the medium which contains [l5N]L-arginine as the only extracellular source of arginine demonstrates that arginine is recycled through its metabolite in activated macrophages.  相似文献   
2.
目的比较雄性Fmr1基因敲除小鼠和FVB小鼠血液生理生化值和血清性激素水平,探讨Fmr1基因对动物生长发育和生殖生理等方面的影响。方法分别测定血液生理指标、血清生化指标、血清电解质和血清E2、LH、FSH、T和PRL的含量,并进行统计学处理和分析。结果雄性Fmr1基因敲除小鼠与FVB小鼠比较,血液生理指标中MCV和PCT有显著差异(P〈0.05),而RBC、HCT、HGB、MCH和WBC等无显著差异(P〉0.05);血清生化指标中除TBIL、[IP^3+]、[Mg^2+](P〈0.05)和AIP、BUN(P〈0.01)外,TPROT、GLB、A/G、BUN、CREAT、[K^+]、[Na^+]等项均无显著差异(P〉0.05)。性激素水平E2、LH值差异无显著性(P〉0.05),FSH、T、PRL差异极显著(P〈0.01)。结论Fmr1基因可影响动物的某些生理生化及激素水平。  相似文献   
3.
Oral administration of berberine chloride to mice induced an obvious enhancement in jejunal health status as expressed by the significant reduction of apoptotic cells within the intestinal villi from 15.5 to 8.3 apoptotic cell/10 VCU. In addition, jejunal antioxidant biomarkers were significantly improved as revealed by the increase in the activities of catalase and glutathione peroxidase enzymes with a concurrent increase in reduced glutathione levels and total antioxidant capacity. Also, it was associated with a significant decrease in oxidative damage biomarkers of hydrogen peroxides, malondialdehyde, nitrite/nitrate, inducible nitric oxide synthase and protein carbonyl content. Moreover, BBR treatment induced a reduction in the pro-inflammatory cytokine, TNF-α by about 40%. It is highly recommended to use berberine as food supplements or as natural drug therapy to enhance the antioxidant status within the intestinal tissue.  相似文献   
4.
Schistosomiasis is still one of the main parasitic diseases that affect human health in tropical regions. Whilst praziquantel (PZQ) is the main classic antischistosomal drug, the need for new drugs is still a must due to the low effectiveness of the drug on the schistosome young worms, and the evolving of PZQ resistant strains. Nanotechnology is one of the most important recent and current methods used to treat human diseases including parasitic ones. Therefore, the present study aimed to examine the curative role of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) on splenic tissue of mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy was used for characterization of nanoparticles (NP). GNPs of 1 mg/kg mice body weight were inoculated into mice infected with S. mansoni. The parasite caused deteriorations in histological architecture of the spleen tissue, and splenomegaly. Additionally, the parasite induced a significant reduction in splenic tissue glutathione levels; however, the concentrations of nitric oxide and malondialdehyde were significantly increased. Treatment of mice with GNPs reduced the extent of histological impairment and oxidative stress in spleen tissue. Therefore, our results demonstrate the protective role of GNPs against splenic damage in mice infected with S. mansoni.  相似文献   
5.
小鼠乳腺细胞凋亡及瘦素对凋亡的影响   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
目的系统的研究小鼠乳腺发育周期中乳腺细胞凋亡情况,并阐明瘦素对乳腺细胞凋亡的影响。方法以小鼠乳腺为实验材料,采用TUNEL法系统地研究小鼠乳腺在青春期、妊娠期、泌乳期和退化期的整个发育周期中的细胞凋亡情况,并通过培养基中添加瘦素的方法研究瘦素对乳腺细胞凋亡的影响。结果在青春期50~60d、妊娠期10~16d、退化期1~10d检测到较多的细胞凋亡,其中退化期细胞凋亡最为显著。添加瘦素培养的乳腺细胞凋亡信号明显增多。结论小鼠乳腺发育不同时期细胞凋亡同结构和功能发育之间相互联系。同时通过小鼠乳腺组织体外培养的方法,证明瘦素在退化期乳腺组织中可明显诱导组织凋亡。  相似文献   
6.
Yield of polysaccharides from Phascolosoma esulenta obtained by phosphate buffer extraction through an orthogonal experiment (L9(3)4) were investigated to get the best extraction conditions. The results showed that extraction temperature, ratio of phosphate buffer to raw material, extraction time, and ratio of trypsinase to raw material were the main four variables that influenced the yields of extracts. The highest yield was obtained when extraction temperature, ratio of phosphate buffer to raw material, extraction time and ratio of trypsinase to raw material were 40 °C, 2, 5.5 h and 1.6, respectively. The immunity-stimulating method showed that polysaccharides from P. esulenta could significantly raise liver, spleen and thymus index of mice and enhance Con A-stimulated mouse spleen cells proliferation. These results indicate that polysaccharides from P. esulenta had significantly higher immunity-stimulating activities.  相似文献   
7.
Lipids play a central role in lung physiology and pathology; however, a comprehensive lipidomic characterization of human pulmonary cells relevant to disease has not been performed. The cells involved in lung host defense, including alveolar macrophages (AMs), bronchial epithelial cells (BECs), and alveolar type II cells (ATIIs), were isolated from human subjects and lipidomic analysis by LC-MS and LC-MS/MS was performed. Additionally, pieces of lung tissue from the same donors were analyzed by MALDI imaging MS in order to determine lipid localization in the tissue. The unique distribution of phospholipids in ATIIs, BECs, and AMs from human subjects was accomplished by subjecting the large number of identified phospholipid molecular species to univariant statistical analysis. Specific MALDI images were generated based on the univariant statistical analysis data to reveal the location of specific cell types within the human lung slice. While the complex composition and function of the lipidome in various disease states is currently poorly understood, this method could be useful for the characterization of lipid alterations in pulmonary disease and may aid in a better understanding of disease pathogenesis.  相似文献   
8.
9.
Tropheryma whipplei, the etiological agent of Whipple''s disease, is an intracellular bacterium that infects macrophages. We previously showed that infection of macrophages results in M2 polarization associated with induction of apoptosis and interleukin (IL)-16 secretion. In patients with Whipple''s disease, circulating levels of apoptotic markers and IL-16 are increased and correlate with the activity of the disease. To gain insight into the understanding of the pathophysiology of this rare disease, we examined the molecular pathways involved in T. whipplei-induced apoptosis of human macrophages. Our data showed that apoptosis induction depended on bacterial viability and inhibition of bacterial protein synthesis reduced the apoptotic program elicited by T. whipplei. Induction of apoptosis was also associated with a massive degradation of both pro- and anti-apoptotic mediators. Caspase-specific inhibition experiments revealed that initiator caspases 8 and 10 were required for apoptosis, in contrast to caspases 2 and 9, in spite of cytochrome-c release from mitochondria. Finally, the effector caspases 3 and 6 were mandatory for apoptosis induction. Collectively, these data suggest that T. whipplei induces apoptosis through the extrinsic pathway and that, beside M2 polarization of macrophages, apoptosis induction contributes to bacterial replication and represents a virulence trait of this intracellular pathogen.  相似文献   
10.
《Developmental cell》2022,57(12):1512-1528.e5
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