首页 | 本学科首页   官方微博 | 高级检索  
文章检索
  按 检索   检索词:      
出版年份:   被引次数:   他引次数: 提示:输入*表示无穷大
  收费全文   47517篇
  免费   4315篇
  国内免费   1193篇
  2023年   680篇
  2022年   674篇
  2021年   1099篇
  2020年   1669篇
  2019年   2183篇
  2018年   1967篇
  2017年   1375篇
  2016年   1353篇
  2015年   1540篇
  2014年   2962篇
  2013年   3458篇
  2012年   2202篇
  2011年   2892篇
  2010年   2152篇
  2009年   2415篇
  2008年   2585篇
  2007年   2505篇
  2006年   2101篇
  2005年   1946篇
  2004年   1711篇
  2003年   1457篇
  2002年   1277篇
  2001年   857篇
  2000年   661篇
  1999年   666篇
  1998年   542篇
  1997年   447篇
  1996年   442篇
  1995年   538篇
  1994年   534篇
  1993年   430篇
  1992年   393篇
  1991年   349篇
  1990年   270篇
  1989年   252篇
  1988年   210篇
  1987年   226篇
  1986年   170篇
  1985年   324篇
  1984年   456篇
  1983年   403篇
  1982年   421篇
  1981年   344篇
  1980年   351篇
  1979年   275篇
  1978年   219篇
  1977年   211篇
  1976年   210篇
  1975年   179篇
  1974年   165篇
排序方式: 共有10000条查询结果,搜索用时 15 毫秒
1.
Two synthesis routes, solid‐state reaction and precipitation reaction, were employed to prepare BaSiO3:Eu2+ phosphors in this study. Discrepancies in the luminescence green emission at 505 nm for the solid‐state reaction method sample and in the yellow emission at 570 nm for the sample prepared by the precipitation reaction method, were observed respectively. A detail investigation about the discrepant luminescence of BaSiO3:Eu2+ phosphors was performed by evaluation of X‐ray diffraction (XRD), photoluminescence (PL)/photoluminescence excitation (PLE), decay time and thermal quenching properties. The results showed that the yellow emission was generated from the BaSiO3:Eu2+ phosphor, while the green emission was ascribed to a small amount of Ba2SiO4:Eu2+ compound that was present in the solid‐state reaction sample. This work clarifies the luminescence properties of Eu2+ ions in BaSiO3 and Ba2SiO4 hosts.  相似文献   
2.
The present study describes efficient and facile syntheses of varyingly substituted 3-thioaurones from the corresponding 3-oxoaurones using Lawesson’s reagent and phosphorous pentasulfide. In comparison, the latter methodology was proved more convenient, giving higher yields and required short and simple methodology. The structures of synthetic compounds were unambiguously elucidated by IR, MS and NMR spectroscopy. All synthetic compounds were screened for their inhibitory potential against in vitro acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) enzymes. Molecular docking studies were also performed in order to examine their binding interactions with AChE and BChE human proteins. Both studies revealed that some of these compounds were found to be good inhibitors against AChE and BChE.  相似文献   
3.
4.
N-phenyl ureidobenzenesulfonates (PUB-SOs) is a new class of promising anticancer agents inducing replication stresses and cell cycle arrest in S-phase. However, the pharmacological target of PUB-SOs was still unidentified. Consequently, the objective of the present study was to identify and confirm the pharmacological target of the prototypical PUB-SO named 2-ethylphenyl 4-(3-ethylureido)benzenesulfonate (SFOM-0046) leading to the cell cycle arrest in S-phase. The antiproliferative and the cytotoxic activities of SFOM-0046 were characterized using the NCI-60 screening program and its fingerprint was analyzed by COMPARE algorithm. Then, human dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (hDHODH) colorimetric assay, uridine rescuing cell proliferation and molecular docking in the brequinar-binding site were performed. As a result, SFOM-0046 exhibited a mean antiproliferative activity of 3.5 μM in the NCI-60 screening program and evidenced that leukemia and colon cancer cell panels were more sensitive to SFOM-0046. COMPARE algorithm showed that the SFOM-0046 cytotoxic profile is equivalent to the ones of brequinar and dichloroallyl lawsone, two inhibitors of hDHODH. SFOM-0046 inhibited the hDHODH in the low nanomolar range (IC50 = 72 nM) and uridine rescued the cell proliferation of HT-29, HT-1080, M21 and MCF-7 cancer cell lines in the presence of SFOM-0046. Finally, molecular docking showed a binding pose of SFOM-0046 interacting with Met43 and Phe62 present in the brequinar-binding site. In conclusion, PUB-SOs and notably SFOM-0046 are new small molecules hDHODH inhibitors triggering replication stresses and S-phase arrest.  相似文献   
5.
6.
7.
  • Oxalic acid is widely distributed in biological systems and known to play functional roles in plants. The gene AAE3 was recently identified to encode an oxalyl‐CoA synthetase (OCS) in Arabidopsis that catalyses the conversion of oxalate and CoA into oxalyl‐CoA. It will be particularly important to characterise the homologous gene in rice since rice is not only a monocotyledonous model plant, but also a staple food crop.
  • Various enzymatic and biological methods have been used to characterise the homologous gene.
  • We first defined that AAE3 in the rice genome (OsAAE3) also encodes an OCS enzyme. Its Km for oxalate is 1.73 ± 0.12 mm , and Vm is 6824.9 ± 410.29 U·min?1·mg protein?1. Chemical modification and site‐directed mutagenesis analyses identified thiols as the active site residues for rice OCS catalysis, suggesting that the enzyme might be regulated by redox state. Subcellular localisation assay showed that the enzyme is located in the cytosol and predominantly distributed in leaf epidermal cells. As expected, oxalate levels increased when OCS was suppressed in RNAi transgenic plants. More interestingly, OCS‐suppressed plants were more susceptible to bacterial blight but more resistant to Al toxicity.
  • The results demonstrate that the OsAAE3‐encoded protein also acts as an OCS in rice, and may play different roles in coping with stresses. These molecular, enzymatic and functional data provide first‐hand information to further clarify the function and mechanism of OCS in rice plants.
  相似文献   
8.
9.
Mounting evidence supports the hypothesis that inflammation modulates sympathetic sprouting after myocardial infarction (MI). The myeloid P2X7 signal has been shown to activate the nucleotide‐binding and oligomerization domain‐like receptor family pyrin domain‐containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, a master regulator of inflammation. We investigated whether P2X7 signal participated in the pathogenesis of sympathetic reinnervation after MI, and whether NLRP3/interleukin‐1β (IL‐1β) axis is involved in the process. We explored the relationship between P2X7 receptor (P2X7R) and IL‐1β in the heart tissue of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)‐primed naive rats. 3′‐O‐(4‐benzoyl) benzoyl adenosine 5′‐triphosphate (BzATP), a P2X7R agonist, induced caspase‐1 activation and mature IL‐1β release, which was further neutralized by a NLRP3 inhibitor (16673‐34‐0). MI was induced by coronary artery ligation. Following infarction, a marked increase in P2X7R was localized within infiltrated macrophages and observed in parallel with an up‐regulation of NLRP3 inflammasome levels and the release of IL‐1β in the left ventricle. The administration of A‐740003 (a P2X7R antagonist) significantly prevented the NLRP3/IL‐1β increase. A‐740003 and/or Anakinra (an IL‐1 receptor antagonist) significantly reduced macrophage infiltration as well as macrophage‐based IL‐1β and NGF (nerve growth factor) production and eventually blunted sympathetic hyperinnervation, as assessed by the immunofluorescence of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and growth‐associated protein 43 (GAP 43). Moreover, the use of Anakinra partly attenuated sympathetic sprouting. This indicated that the effect of P2X7 on neural remodelling was mediated at least partially by IL‐1β. The arrhythmia score of programmed electric stimulation was in accordance with the degree of sympathetic hyperinnervation. In vitro studies showed that BzATP up‐regulated secretion of nerve growth factor (NGF) in M1 macrophages via IL‐1β. Together, these data indicate that P2X7R contributes to neural and cardiac remodelling, at least partly mediated by NLRP3/IL‐1β axis. Therapeutic interventions targeting P2X7 signal may be a novel approach to ameliorate arrhythmia following MI.  相似文献   
10.
Ubiquitin enzymes in the regulation of immune responses   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
Ubiquitination plays a central role in the regulation of various biological functions including immune responses. Ubiquitination is induced by a cascade of enzymatic reactions by E1 ubiquitin activating enzyme, E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme, and E3 ubiquitin ligase, and reversed by deubiquitinases. Depending on the enzymes, specific linkage types of ubiquitin chains are generated or hydrolyzed. Because different linkage types of ubiquitin chains control the fate of the substrate, understanding the regulatory mechanisms of ubiquitin enzymes is central. In this review, we highlight the most recent knowledge of ubiquitination in the immune signaling cascades including the T cell and B cell signaling cascades as well as the TNF signaling cascade regulated by various ubiquitin enzymes. Furthermore, we highlight the TRIM ubiquitin ligase family as one of the examples of critical E3 ubiquitin ligases in the regulation of immune responses.  相似文献   
设为首页 | 免责声明 | 关于勤云 | 加入收藏

Copyright©北京勤云科技发展有限公司  京ICP备09084417号