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1.
The adaptive significance of inversion polymorphism of Drosophila subobscura is well established. However, little is known about gene combinations within inversions which are coadapted because of population-specific effects. We studied this aspect of Dobzhansky's coadaptation hypothesis, using the systematic inbreeding method. Differences in magnitude and quality of inversion polymorphism in two ecologically and topologically distinct habitats were compared after several generations of continuous full-sib inbreeding. Populations from the two habitats differ in frequency of homokaryotypes after third and fifth generation of inbreeding and in the levels of homozygosity of different gene arrangements. The effect of homozygosity appears population and chromosome specific.  相似文献   
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Many studies have examined the association between the FABP2 (rs1799883) Ala54Thr gene polymorphism and type 2 diabetes mellitus risk (T2DM) in various populations, but their results have been inconsistent. To assess this relationship more precisely, A HuGE review and meta‐analysis were performed. The PubMed and CNKI database was searched for case‐control studies published up to April 2014. Data were extracted and pooled odds ratios (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. Ultimately, 13 studies, comprising 2020 T2DM cases and 2910 controls were included. Overall, for the Thr carriers (Ala/Thr and Thr/Thr) versus the wild‐type homozygotes (Ala/Ala), the pooled OR was 1.18 (95% CI = 1.04–1.34, P = 0.062 for heterogeneity), for Thr/Thr versus Ala/Ala the pooled OR was 1.17 (95% CI = 1.05–1.41 P = 0.087 for heterogeneity). In the stratified analysis by ethnicity, the significantly risks were found among Asians but not Caucasians. This meta‐analysis suggests that the FABP2 (rs1799883) Ala54Thr polymorphisms are associated with increased susceptibility to T2DM risk among Asians but not Caucasians.  相似文献   
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Two general models for the transspecific evolution of butterfly colour patterns are advanced: directional selection acting equally on both sexes, and disruptive selection involving periods of polymorphism. To consider possible outcomes of me latter process, a morphism notation based on an integrated classification for polymorphism and sexual dimorphism is developed. This notation is used to examine the properties of all morphism transformations possible from the minimal expressions of the nine morphism categories, as reached through defined minimum step changes. The significance of such pathway models is analysed in terms of general properties of butterfly polymorphism. The potential use of pathway models in evolutionary studies is briefly discussed, mainly with respect to phylogenetics, and ideas on the evolution of genetic dominance.  相似文献   
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1. The ability to achieve optimal camouflage varies between microhabitats in heterogeneous environments, potentially restricting individuals to a single habitat or imposing a compromise on crypsis to match several habitats. However, animals may exhibit morphological and behavioural attributes that enhance crypsis in different habitats. 2. We used an undescribed fish species, Galaxias‘nebula’, to investigate two objectives. First, we examined two potential methods of enhancing crypsis: change in colour pattern and selection of a suitable background. Second, we characterised the colour pattern of this unstudied fish and assessed its capacity for crypsis. 3. No background selection was apparent but the area of dark pigment expressed varied between backgrounds, which may negate the requirement to be choosy about habitats. The capacity to change colour and selection of a background that maximises crypsis are most likely separate, non‐mutually exclusive strategies. 4. Galaxias‘nebula’ exhibits polymorphic, non‐interchangeable colour patterns that have elements of both background pattern matching and disruptive colouration. This, coupled with habitat characteristics, suggests a combination of generalist and specialist strategies of habitat use. The fish’s camouflage strategy and air‐breathing ability may be key to survival under increasing pressure from habitat degradation and invasive predators.  相似文献   
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Summary Using restriction enzyme digests of genomic DNA extracted from the leaves of 25 hexaploid wheat (Triticum aestivum L. em. Thell.) cultivars and their hybrids, restriction fragment length polymorphisms of the spacer DNA which separates the ribosomal-RNA genes have been examined. (From one to three thousand of these genes are borne on chromosomes 1B and 6B of hexaploid wheat). The data show that there are three distinct alleles of the 1B locus, designated Nor-B1a, Nor-B1b, and Nor-B1c, and at least five allelic variants of the 6B locus, designated Nor-B2a, Nor-B2b, Nor-B2c, Nor-B2d, and Nor-B2e. A further, previously reported allele on 6B has been named Nor-B2f. Chromosome 5D has only one allelic variant, Nor-D3. Whereas the major spacer variants of the 1B alleles apparently differ by the loss or gain of one or two of the 133 bp sub-repeat units within the spacer DNA, the 6B allelic variants show major differences in their compositions and lengths. This may be related to the greater number of rDNA repeat units at this locus. The practical implications of these differences and their application to wheat breeding are discussed.  相似文献   
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Genomic DNA isolated from 20 horses was digested with up to six restriction endonucleases and subjected to southern blot hybridization analysis using various human class II alpha- and beta-chain cDNA probes. A high degree of restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) was found for the DQ alpha, DP beta, DQ beta and DR beta probes, about 20 polymorphic bands being detected for each. DR alpha showed 2-4 polymorphic bands, whereas no evidence for DP alpha-like genes was found. A number of correlations of RFLPs with individual alloantisera were apparent.  相似文献   
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Biologists and philosophers have been extremely pessimistic about the possibility of demonstrating random drift in nature, particularly when it comes to distinguishing random drift from natural selection. However, examination of a historical case – Maxime Lamotte’s study of natural populations of the land snail, Cepaea nemoralis in the 1950s – shows that while some pessimism is warranted, it has been overstated. Indeed, by describing a unique signature for drift and showing that this signature obtained in the populations under study, Lamotte was able to make a good case for a significant role for␣drift. It may be difficult to disentangle the causes of drift and selection acting in a population, but it is not (always) impossible.  相似文献   
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