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1.
Aphytophagy in butterflies: its relationship to myrmecophily   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
The regular or obligate aphytophagy of certain lycaenid butterflies (Lepidoptera) is discussed within the framework of the most recent general classification of the family. A summary survey of all Lycaenidae known to be aphytophagous is presented, together with a brief account of cannibalism and other opportunistic aphytophagy exhibited by normally phytophagous butterflies. The range of food sources (plants, animals, excretions and regurgitations) exploited by lycaenids is reviewed with emphasis falling on the ecology of myrmecophilous early stages and the significance of their ant-related adaptations. Adult feeding and oviposition behaviour reveal further associations with ants. Specificity of lycaenid/ant relationships and the possible biological effects of aphytophagy on the Lycaenidae are discussed. Finally, speculations concerning the evolution of aphytophagy by these butterflies are critically presented.  相似文献   
2.
The Lycaenidae are the second-largest family of butterflies. From host-plant data collated for more than 1200 species worldwide, large-scale taxonomic, geographical and ecological patterns emerge which suggest that phytochemical similarities and barriers, coupled with phylogenetic conservatism and constraints are key factors governing hostplant use. More than two thirds of the lycaenid species are restricted to one plant family or genus. Affiliations with toxic plants are rare in the Lycaenidae, and excretion rather than sequestration of plant toxins appears to be their usual way of detoxifying host-plant compounds. Flavonoids are frequently sequestered by lycaenid larvae and are subsequently concentrated as pigments in the adults' wings, where they might play a role in visual communication. Mutualistic associations with ants occur in the larvae of more than 50% of the extant Lycaenidae species. Because of a conflict between the nutrient demands of the larvae and the proportion of plant-derived resources allocated to maintain the mutualism with ants, variation in resource quality often translates into variation of mutualistic capacities of the caterpillars, in particular under nutrient stress.  相似文献   
3.
Summary The composition of the ant community was assessed along standardized 100 m transects in annually flooded Varzea forest and in terra firme forests on sandy soil (Flanco forest) and on claytopped mesas (Planalto forest). Standardized samples were taken by unit-time hand collecting (day and night times), sweeping, beating, baiting and by Winkler sacks. A total of 156 species, representing 49 genera were found, of which 98, 88 and 55 were respectively found in the Planalto, Flanco and Varzea forests. Species lists are presented and the ant community composition and species richness are compared between the three forests. By considering the nesting and foraging habits of the various species, the differences in overall community composition are related to the forest type and susceptibility to inundation of the three forests which were surveyed.The data confirm the view that tropical rain forests support an extremely diverse ant fauna and comparisons with other forested areas suggest that ant species richness declines in subtropical and temperate rain forests. Although alpha diversity is high, species turnover between forests is lower than expected, suggesting that ant species richness in this forested region is not as great as is implied in some published estimates of global arthropod diversity.  相似文献   
4.
Diane Wagner 《Oecologia》1993,96(2):276-281
The transfer of nutrients between organisms is a common feature of mutualism. The production of these food rewards is often assumed to be costly. Estimation of the costs of producing food rewards is important for understanding the overall effects of the interaction on fitness. When food rewards are harvested by several species differing in foraging behavior, costs to the producer may differ. The larvae of many species in the butterfly family Lycaenidae produce secretions consumed by tending ants. Here I report that three North American ant species, Formica perpilosa, Dorymyrmex sp. (smithi complex), and Forelius foetida, had no negative effect on the duration of development and adult size of the lycaenid Hemiargus isola. Moreover, tending by the ant Formica perpilosa significantly enhanced larval growth, resulting in butterflies that were 20% heavier than their untended counterparts. Tending by the ants Dorymyrmex sp. (smithi complex) and Forelius foetida had no effect on butterfly weight. Tended, nonfeeding larvae lost 69% more weight than untended, nonfeeding larvae. Taken together, the results suggest that, although ant tending imposes a physiological cost, H. isola larvae use behavioral or physiological mechanisms to compensate or overcompensate for nutrients lost to ants.  相似文献   
5.
Summary Three alternative hypotheses about the evolution of recruitment behaviour in ants, based on accounts in the literature, are compared by means of a cladistic analysis. The three hypotheses are the following:Hypothesis 1. Increasingly efficient recruitment behaviours exhibited by different ant species have been shaped by or are correlated with ant phylogeny.Hypothesis 2. Increasingly efficient recruitment behaviours represent necessary evolutionary steps independently followed during the evolution of different ant clades.Hypothesis 3. Differently efficient recruitment behaviours have been selected in a convergent way among different species by similar population/environmental constraints.In a first stage of the analysis, these hypotheses have been compared in terms of parsimony (i.e. in terms of tree length = TL) of alternative cladograms based on recruitment behaviour only. The analysis gave the following results: Hypothesis 1, TL = 4; Hypothesis 2, TL = 18; Hypothesis 3, TL = 11. At least in terms of parsimony, hence, Hypothesis 1 appears to be the best. This hypothesis, however, cannot be retained for its total lack of congruence with current views on ant phylogeny. Among the remaining two hypotheses, Hypothesis 3 is again much (ca. 40%) more parsimonious than Hypothesis 2, but the retention index for recruitment behaviour on the relative cladogram is 0.2 as compared with 0.7 for Hypothesis 2. Practically, this implies biologically very implausible behavioural evolution indicated by very improbable ancestors for the species included in the analysis. In the case of recruitment evolution the biological credibility of each hypothesis is inversely proportional to its parsimony.The three hypotheses on the evolution of recruitment behaviour are compared again taking into account the morphological and behavioural correlates of recruitment. The results confirm those obtained by simple cladistic analysis of behaviour alone, namely that an obligatory (i. e. neither reversible nor random) increase in recruitment efficiency has been repeatedly selected within different ant clades. Inclusion of the recruitment correlates allows, in addition, a more precise formulation of the implications of each hypothesis and a tentative test of two other alternatives deduced from the literature. Most papers dealing with recruitment assume this behaviour to be controlled by a single gland, while at least two experimental analyses show that more than one gland is likely to be involved as behavioural releaser. A cladistic approach allowed testing of the following two adaptational hypotheses: A) Synergic behavioural control by several glands, allowing shift of the dominant role from one gland to another. B) Single gland control, making improbable the replacement of one gland by another that performs the same function. The results of the analysis appear to favour alternative A slightly, though neither alternative results in implausible evolutionary paths.It is stressed that parsimony remains the sole decisional criterion when no other criteria are available but it can by no way be preferred to the slightest trace of biological common sense.  相似文献   
6.
Summary For the first time for a Neotropical ant and for Myrmicinae, the searching behavior and specialized predation of spirobolid millipede eggs byStegomyrmex vizottoi Diniz will be described. The relationship between morphology and habits is studied, as are nest architecture and distribution of the ant population in the nest chambers. We also report on some observations of behavior in the field and laboratory.We dedicate this paper to William L. Brown Junior, on the occasion of his 70th birthday.  相似文献   
7.
Vienne  C.  Soroker  V.  Hefetz  A. 《Insectes Sociaux》1995,42(3):267-277
Summary In homospecific groups of ants, each species has its own hydrocarbon profile, on the epicuticle and in the postpharyngeal gland (PPG). When reared together in bispecific groups, workers of both species possess each other's hydrocarbons in both locations. The present study investigated two alternative mechanisms by which a mixed odour in artificial groups ofFormica selysi/Manica rubida can be created. Using [1-14C] sodium acetate as a precursor,de novo biosynthesis of hydrocarbons was demonstrated for both species whether reared in homospecific or mixed-species groups. The newly synthesized hydrocarbons occurred on the epicuticle, internally, and in particularly large amounts in the PPG. As expected from their PPG and epicuticular hydrocarbons composition, workersF. selysi synthesized alkanes and alkenes in comparable amounts irrespective of their rearing scheme. Likewise,M. rubida reared in bispecific groups synthesized mostly alkanes with only negligible amounts of alkenes, according to a ratio characteristic toM. rubida workers from homospecific groups and not toF. selysi workers. During dyadic encounters, a transfer of labeled hydrocarbons between nestmates (conspecific in homospecific groups and allospecific in mixed groups) was observed. These results suggest that the formation of the mixed hydrocarbon profile in artificial groups of ants is the result of a transfer of these chemicals between nestmates rather thande novo biosynthesis of the allospecific hydrocarbons. Behaviours like trophallaxis, grooming and body contact that occurred during the encounters mediated such a transfer.  相似文献   
8.
The ant speciesLeptothorax tuberum was shown to be predominantly monogynous. Queens usually mate once only but some nests may have a multiply-mated queen or are partially or serially polygynous. As expected from these results, within nest relatedness between workers and between workers and alate queens was found to be high. Almost fifty percent of nests had no nest queen which may indicate high queen mortality, queens leaving to found new nests or nest fragmentation. Observed female investment frequencies (IF o ) were not significantly different from those expected on the basis of worker control of sexual production and the relatedness estimates of workers to alate queens and workers to males calculated from isozyme data (IF E ). These values were not consistent with queen control. There was no evidence for lower IF o s in queenless nests nor for higher IF o s in larger nests classified by worker number. When nests were classified by sexual productivity, however, there was a strong rank correlation between productivity and female bias. This is the first study of an ant species to test observed IF against expected IF calculated without inferring between caste relatedness from worker data or pooling of data from different castes.  相似文献   
9.
In three field experiments in Kenya , the seasonal population trend of Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) (= Heliothis armigera) in sunflower was followed in plots from which predators were excluded and in plots from which predators were not excluded . In experiment 1 , complete exclusion of crawling predators (predominantly Pheidole spp . of ants occurring at densities of 25 per plant) resulted in H. armigera densities 3 - 5 times higher than in plots where ants were not excluded . Pheidole sp . had more impact on young H. armigera larvae (instars 2 - 3) than on older larvae (instars 4 - 6) . The results of experiment 2 were less striking , because H. armigera infestation was low , and ant densities were moderate . Here , Myrmicaria spp . and Camponotus spp . were the predominant ants . Exclusion of ants resulted in a 1 . 8 - fold increase in densities of large H. armigera instars . In experiment 3 , the impact of predators on H. armigera was studied under three conditions: exclusion of crawling predators , exclusion of both crawling and flying predators , and the control where no predators were excluded . To evaluate the role of predation in total mortality , the recruitment of H. armigera larvae was determined with Southwood and Jepson ' s graphical method , and recruitment of newly laid eggs was directly measured on trap plants . Because it was difficult to detect older eggs due to colour change , the direct measurement of egg recruitment was superior to the graphical method . Ants and Anthocoridae were the dominant predators . M ortality from egg to older larvae (instars 4 - 6) was 73 - 78% . Exclusion of ants and anthocorids did not affect the densities of H. armigera larvae . Anthocorid predators increased only after the main oviposi tion peak of H. armigera and , therefore , their exclusion had little impact on the pest . Ant density was considerably lower than in experiment 1 , and did not significantly suppress H. armigera.  相似文献   
10.
The coffee (Coffea arabica) agro-ecosystem in the Central Valley of Costa Rica was formerly characterized by a high vegetational diversity. This complex system has been undergoing a major transformation to capital-intensive monocultural plantations where all shade trees are eliminated. In this study we examined the pattern of arthropod biodiversity loss associated with this transformation. Canopy arthropods were sampled in three coffee farms: a traditional plantation with many species of shade trees, a moderately shaded plantation with only Erythrina poeppigeana and coffee, and a coffee monoculture. An insecticidal fogging technique was used to sample both canopy and coffee arthropods. Data are presented on three major taxonomic groups: Coleoptera, non-formicid Hymenoptera, and Formicidae. Data demonstrate that the transformation of the coffee agro-ecosystem results in a significant loss of biological diversity of both canopy arthropods as well as arthropods living in coffee bushes. Percentage of species overlap was very small for all comparisons. Furthermore, species' richness on a per tree basis was found to be within the same order of magnitude as that reported for trees in tropical forests. If results presented here are generalizable, this means that conservation efforts to preserve biological diversity should also include traditional agro-ecosystems as conservation units.  相似文献   
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