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1.
The polyphagous shot hole borer (PSHB), Euwallacea sp., was first detected in 2003 in Los Angeles County, California, USA. Recently, this invasive species has become a major pest of many hardwood trees in urban and wildland forests throughout southern California. PSHB is nearly identical in morphology and life history to the tea shot hole borer (TSHB), Euwallacea fornicatus, an invasive pest of hardwoods in Florida, USA and many other parts of the world. However, molecular studies have suggested that the taxa are different species. We conducted morphometric and chemical analyses of the phenotypes of Euwallacea sp. collected in southern California (Los Angeles County) and E. fornicatus collected in Florida (Miami‐Dade County). Our analyses indicated that PSHB has 3 larval instars. The third larval instar was separated from the first 2 instars by head capsule width with 0 probability of misclassification. The body length, head width, and pronotal width of PSHB adult males were significantly less than those of females. Head width and pronotal width of female PSHB were significantly less than those of female TSHB. In contrast, body length, and ratio of body length to pronotal width of female PSHB were significantly greater than those of female TSHB. However, females of these 2 species could not be separated completely by these 4 measurements because of the overlapping ranges. Cuticular hydrocarbons detected in both species were exclusively alkanes (i.e., n‐alkanes, monomethylalkanes, dimethylalkanes, and trimethylalkanes). Cuticular hydrocarbon profiles of PSHB males and females were similar, but they both differed from that of TSHB females. Cuticular hydrocarbons of PSHB were predominantly internally branched dimethylalkanes with backbones of 31 and 33 carbons, whereas cuticular hydrocarbons of TSHB females were dominated by internally branched monomethylalkanes and dimethylalkanes with backbones of 28 and 29 carbons. Multiple compounds within these classes appear to be diagnostic for PSHB and TSHB, respectively.  相似文献   
2.
In this article the conditions that govern surfactant‐enhanced emulsification and mobilization of petroleum hydrocarbons in soil are reviewed. The effect of soil properties, groundwater constituents, and differing surfactant solutions on the emulsification process is discussed. A constant head soil flushing apparatus used to characterize surfactant‐enhanced mobilization of m‐xylene is described. Data showing the effect of surfactant‐enhanced mobilization on m‐xylene removal efficiency in washed sand is presented. Flushing solutions were used at concentrations from below to well above the critical micelle concentration (CMC) of the surfactants used. Removal efficiencies are shown to vary with surfactant concentration and with surfactant type. Flushing solutions of anionic, nonionic, and anionic/nonionic surfactant mixtures were evaluated.  相似文献   
3.
The effects of long-term water stress on water and terpene contents of the foliage of Cupressus sempervirens were studied. A great deal of water was lost over 2 months before a remarkable stabilization. A strong decrease of all the classes of terpenes accompanied this dehydration. Mono- and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons and free terpenols were almost entirely metabolized, whereas esters and terpene glycosides rose slightly and remained at a constant level when the water content had stabilized. Although a significant part of the mono- and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons was emitted in the early stage of stress application, the major part was used by the plant in response to the drought conditions.  相似文献   
4.
Epidemiological evidence has suggested an association between meat consumption and the risk of breast cancer. 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), a heterocyclic amine found in cooked meat, has been implicated in the aetiology of breast cancer and has been shown to induce tumour formation in rodent mammary glands. In addition, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, such as benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P) which has also been shown to induce tumour formation at a number of sites in rodents including the breast, are produced during the cooking of meat through the pyrolysis of fats. The aim of this study was to examine the bioavailability of these compounds to human breast tissue and their ability to bind to DNA to form DNA adducts. Patients undergoing breast surgery at York District Hospital were orally administered prior to surgery a capsule containing 20 μg of 14C PhIP (182 kBq, specific activity 2.05 GBq/mmol) or 5 μg of 14C B[a]P (36 kBq, specific activity 1.81 GBq/mmol). At surgery, normal and tumour breast tissue was resected and tissue concentrations of carcinogen measured by liquid scintillation counting and DNA adduct levels by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) were subsequently determined. It was found that both 14C PhIP and 14C B[a]P were able to reach the target organ where they had the ability to form DNA adducts. The level of adducts ranged from 26.22–477.35 and 6.61–208.38 adducts/1012 nucleotides following administration of 14C PhIP and 14C B[a]P, respectively, with no significant difference observed between levels in normal or tumour tissue. In addition, the data obtained in this study were comparable to adduct levels previously found in colon samples following administration of the same compounds to individuals undergoing colorectal surgery. This is the first report that these two carcinogens bind to human breast DNA after administration of a defined low dose.  相似文献   
5.
Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), wide-spread mutagenic and carcinogenic environmental pollutants, are consistently exposed to sunlight in the environment. The exposure causes structural change, resulting in the generation of a variety of photomodified products having different bioactivities compared with the parent compounds. In this study, we found that benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) exposed to solar-simulated light (SSL)-induced phosphorylation of histone H2AX (γ-H2AX), which was recently identified as an early event after the induction of DNA double strand breaks (DSBs). Although BaP itself did not produce γ-H2AX, SSL-exposed BaP significantly generated γ-H2AX depending on the period of exposure. Furthermore, we revealed that reactive oxygen species produced by the SSL-exposed BaP mainly contributed to the generation of γ-H2AX. The appearance of γ-H2AX means the induction of the most serious form of DNA damage, DSBs, suggesting the potential risk of carcinogenesis.  相似文献   
6.
3-Nitrobenzanthrone (3-NBA) is a potent environmental mutagen and a potential human carcinogen present in diesel exhaust and airborne particulates. N-acetoxy-3-aminobenzanthrone (N-Aco-ABA) has been shown to be a major reactive metabolite of 3-NBA, which mainly produces adducts with guanine and adenine in cellular DNA. Here we analyzed mutations induced by N-Aco-ABA using supF shuttle vector plasmids to elucidate the mutagenic specificity of 3-NBA in human cells. Base sequence analysis of more than 100 plasmids with supF mutations induced in wildtype and DNA repair-deficient XP cells revealed that the major mutation was base substitutions of which the majority (42 and 38%, respectively) were G:C to T:A transversions. The next major mutation was G:C to A:T and A:T to G:C base substitutions in wildtype and XP cells, respectively. The DNA polymerase stop assay using N-Aco-ABA-treated plasmids as a template showed that most stop signals, i.e., adducted sites, appeared at G:C sites. These results suggest that N-Aco-ABA binds preferably to guanine rather than adenine, and adducted adenine is repaired more efficiently by the nucleotide excision repair. Error-prone DNA polymerases could insert adenine at sites opposite to N-Aco-ABA-adducted guanine, which leads to G:C to T:A transversion. These findings could be very important to evaluate the human lung cancer risk of environmental 3-NBA.  相似文献   
7.
Insects can improve their desiccation resistance by one or more of (1) increasing their water content; (2) decreasing water loss rate; or (3) increasing the amount of water able to be lost before death. Female Drosophila melanogaster have previously been reported to increase their resistance to desiccation after a desiccation pre-treatment and recovery, but the mechanism of this increased desiccation resistance has not been explored. We show that female, but not male adult D. melanogaster increased their resistance to desiccation after 1 h of recovery from a 3 to 4.5 h pre-treatment that depletes them of 10% of their water content. The pre-treatment did not result in an increase in water content after recovery, and there is a slight increase in water content at death in pre-treated females (but no change in males), suggesting that the amount of water loss tolerated is not improved. Metabolic rate, measured on individual flies with flow-through respirometry, did not change with pre-treatment. However, a desiccation pre-treatment did result in a reduction in water loss rate, and further investigation indicated that a change in cuticular water loss rate accounted for this decrease. Thus, the observed increase in desiccation resistance appears to be based on a change in cuticular permeability. However, physiological changes in response to the desiccation pre-treatment were similar in male and female, which therefore does not account for the difference in rapid desiccation hardening between the sexes. We speculate that sex differences in fuel use during desiccation may account for the discrepancy.  相似文献   
8.
The components of biological membranes are present in a physical mixture. The nonrandom ways that the molecules of lipids and proteins mix together can strongly influence the association of proteins with each other, and the chemical reactions that occur in the membrane, or that are mediated by the membrane. A particular type of nonrandom mixing is the separation of compositionally distinct phases. Any such phase separation would result in preferential partition of some proteins and lipids between the coexisting phases, and thus would influence which proteins could be in contact, and whether a protein could find its target. Phase separation in a plasma membrane would also influence the binding of molecules from outside the cell to the membrane, including recognition proteins on viruses, bacteria, and other cells. The concept of these and other events associated with membrane phase separation are sometimes grouped together as the “raft model” of biological membranes. Several types of experiments are aimed at detecting and characterizing membrane phase separation. Visualizing phase separation has special value, both because the immiscibility is so decisively determined, and also because the type of phase can often be identified. The fluorescence microscope has proven uniquely useful for yielding images of separated phases, both in certain cell preparations, and especially in models of cell membranes. Here we discuss ways to prepare useful model membranes for image studies, and how to avoid some of the artifacts that can plague these studies.  相似文献   
9.
10.
Cuticular analysis of Ephestia kuehniella females by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry revealed the presence of four groups of chemical compounds including alkane, alcohol, aldehyde and fatty acid. The cuticular n-alkanes ranged from 12 to 18, 20, 23, 24 and 29 carbon atoms in the chain. The most abundant n-alkanes detected in the cuticular extracts were C14 (14.98%) and C18 (8.15%). Cuticular fatty acids included hexadecenoic acid, 9-octadecenoic acid and 9,12-octadecenoic acid. Two types of alcohol including, 2-methyl-Z,Z-3,13-octadecadienol and 9-methyl-Z-10-tetradecen-1-ol acetate, were found in the cuticular lipids of the females. Two aldehyde components, (E)-11-hexadecenal and 9,17-octadecadienal, were identified in the cuticular extract of E. kuehniella. Antibacterial activity of the cuticular compounds was tested against Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus thuringiensis and Escherichia coli. These compounds from the moths inhibited the growth of Gram-positive bacteria. The functional characteristics of the cuticular compounds operating as pheromones, species-associated compounds and host-resistant compounds to bacterial infection are discussed.  相似文献   
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