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1.
自噬作为一种新的细胞程序化死亡方式,在维持细胞内环境稳态中起着重要作用。它由溶酶体介导,对细胞内衰老细胞器或受损蛋白质进行再次利用,以补充细胞在"饥饿"状态下的物质供给。自噬曾被认为是细胞对氧化应激的随机自我保护性反应,然而最近研究发现自噬体的形成具有选择性和高度保守性的特点。目前研究发现自噬在COPD、肺气肿、肺纤维化、肺动脉高压、急性肺损伤、肺肿瘤等肺部疾病中起重要作用。本文通过分析总结自噬信号传导机制及其在肺部疾病中的相关作用,以阐明肺部疾病的可能发生机制,从而指导相关疾病的临床治疗。  相似文献   
2.
目的:研究miR-21在脑缺血/再灌注(cerebral ischemia-reperfusion,I/R)损伤过程中对血脑屏障(Blood Brain Barrier)的保护作用。方法:采用线栓法构建SD大鼠脑缺血/再灌注模型。实验随机分为空白质粒组,miR-2l-mimic组和miR-21 inhibitor组。利用Western Blot检测大鼠大脑皮层组织中Bax蛋白的表达变化,透射电镜观察大鼠大脑皮层组织中细胞形态和血脑屏障的完整性,免疫荧光检测大脑皮层组织中自噬相关蛋白LC-3的分布情况。结果:Western Blot实验结果显示:与空白质粒相比,给予miR-2l-mimic的大鼠脑组织中Bax蛋白的表达显著降低,而给予miR-21 inhibitor的大鼠脑组织中Bax蛋白的表达升高;透射电镜结果显示:与空白质粒组相比较,miR-2l-mimic组中内皮细胞周围星形胶质细胞的板层突基本完整,而miR-21 inhibitor组中明显可见自噬小体、溶酶体,并有吞噬物存在;免疫荧光结果显示:与空白质粒组比较,miR-21-mimic组中自噬相关蛋白LC-3表达降低,而miR-21 inhibitor组中LC3蛋白的分布增加。结论:miR-2l可能通过下调Bax蛋白的表达抑制凋亡或通过抑制自噬保护血脑屏障。  相似文献   
3.
目的通过定量检测肺组织中Beclin1和p53表达水平,分析自噬蛋白Beclin1与凋亡蛋白P53在肺癌发生发展中的作用,研究二者之间及其与肺癌临床病理分期的关系、为肺癌早期诊断提供新的思路和实验依据。方法选取外科手术或纤维支气管镜肺组织56例,依据2003年UICC公布的肺癌TNM分期标准同时结合临床表现、胸部CT、X线检查、纤维支气管镜检查、腹部CT或B超等将入选的50例病例进行分组:其中Ⅰ期5例,Ⅱ期10例,Ⅲ期(ⅢA+ⅢB)26例,Ⅳ期9例,各组年龄、性别等控制情况基本匹配。组织病理学分级按2003年UICC标准:G17例,G219例,G324例。另取6例癌旁组织或者病理确诊为正常组织作为对照组织。采用流式细胞术检测和分析不同病理分期以及不同临床分期肺癌组织中Beclin1、p53的表达水平,对该表达情况与对应的分期进行样本均数两两对比式统计学分析,并与正常肺组织作对照。结果 P53蛋白阳性表达百分率:肿瘤患者(63.96±9.43)%显著高于正常对照组(24.90±4.68)%,t=49.46,P0.05;肿瘤转移者显著高于未转移者,P0.05;并且P53蛋白表达随患者临床分期和病理分级的增加而逐渐增高(P0.05)。Beclin1蛋白检出率的变化规律与P53蛋白检出率的变化相反:肿瘤患者Beclin1蛋白(31.72±20.53)%,显著低于正常对照组(92.26±4.51)%,t=35.84,P0.05;该指标随患者临床分期和病理分级的增加而逐渐降低(P0.05)。Beclin1蛋白与P53蛋白二者相关性分析,Beclin1与p53的表达呈负相关,r=-0.848,P0.05。结论 Beclin1与p53的联合检测可以作为肺癌诊断指标,为估计肺癌的恶性度及预后提供依据。Beclin1与P53蛋白表达水平与肺癌发生发展的关系密切,肿瘤发生过程中细胞自噬作用降低和抗凋亡作用增强同时并存,提高自噬能力成为肿瘤治疗的又一途径。  相似文献   
4.
Benzyl alcohol caused a rather complete and selective inhibition of the methylamine sensitive (i.e., the putative lysosomal) pathway of protein degradation in isolated rat hepatocytes. The effect was found to be entirely reversible within 30 min of removing the agent. A morphometric examination of electron micrographs revealed that the inhibition of lysosomal protein degradation coincided with a block in the formation of autophagic vacuoles. The number of acidic vacuoles (i.e., vacuoles induced to swell by adding methylamine) was not drastically reduced.  相似文献   
5.
In eukaryotes, the ubiquitin-proteasome system (UPS) and autophagy are two major intracellular protein degradation pathways. Several lines of evidence support the emerging concept of a coordinated and complementary relationship between these two processes, and a particularly interesting finding is that the inhibition of the proteasome induces autophagy. Yet, there is limited knowledge of the regulation of the UPS by autophagy. In this study, we show that the disruption of ATG5 and ATG32 genes in yeast cells under both nutrient-deficient conditions as well as stress that causes mitochondrial dysfunction leads to an activation of proteasome. The same scenario occurs after pharmacological inhibition of basal autophagy in cultured human cells. Our findings underline the view that the two processes are interconnected and tend to compensate, to some extent, for each other's functions.  相似文献   
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Autophagosomes and their precursors are best defined by electron microscopy but may also be traced in living cells based on the distribution of specific autophagy molecules. LC3, the most commonly examined autophagy marker in mammalian cells, labels structures that are frequently manifested as dots or rings using light microscopy; however, the nature of these structures is not entirely clear. We reported here a novel approach to examine the LC3-positive compartment in cell-free lysates, which revealed that they were actually tubulovesicular structures with considerable heterogeneity. Using affinity purification, we isolated these membranes for electron microscopy, which indicated that they possessed ultrastructural features consistent with autophagosomal membranes at various maturation stages. Further biochemical and proteomics analyses demonstrated the presence of multiple autophagy-related and other functional molecules. The different distribution patterns of Atg5, Atg16, Atg9, and p62/SQSTM1 on the LC3-positive compartment provided new clues on how these molecules might be involved in the dynamics of the autophagosomal membranes. Finally, several morphologically unique groups of LC3-positive membranes were categorized. Their topological configurations suggested that double-membrane vesicles could be derived from single membrane compartments via different means, including tubule-to-vesicle conversion, whose presence was supported by live cell imaging. These findings thus provide new information on the dynamics of the autophagosomal compartment.  相似文献   
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9.
Autophagy ensures cellular homeostasis by the degradation of long-lived proteins, damaged organelles and pathogens. This catabolic process provides essential cellular building blocks upon nutrient deprivation. Cellular metabolism, especially mitochondrial respiration, has a significant influence on autophagic flux, and complex I function is required for maximal autophagy. In Parkinson’s disease mitochondrial function is frequently impaired and autophagic flux is altered. Thus, dysfunctional organelles and protein aggregates accumulate and cause cellular damage. In order to investigate the interdependency between mitochondrial function and autophagy, novel tool compounds are required. Herein, we report the discovery of a structurally novel autophagy inhibitor (Authipyrin) using a high content screening approach. Target identification and validation led to the discovery that Authipyrin targets mitochondrial complex I directly, leading to the potent inhibition of mitochondrial respiration as well as autophagy.  相似文献   
10.
Fluoride is an effective caries prophylactic, but at high doses can also be an environmental health hazard. Acute or chronic exposure to high fluoride doses can result in dental enamel and skeletal and soft tissue fluorosis. Dental fluorosis is manifested as mottled, discolored, porous enamel that is susceptible to dental caries. Fluoride induces cell stress, including endoplasmic reticulum stress and oxidative stress, which leads to impairment of ameloblasts responsible for dental enamel formation. Recently we reported that fluoride activates SIRT1 and autophagy as an adaptive response to protect cells from stress. However, it still remains unclear how SIRT1/autophagy is regulated in dental fluorosis. In this study, we demonstrate that fluoride exposure generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the resulting oxidative damage is counteracted by SIRT1/autophagy induction through c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling in ameloblasts. In the mouse-ameloblast-derived cell line LS8, fluoride induced ROS, mitochondrial damage including cytochrome-c release, up-regulation of UCP2, attenuation of ATP synthesis, and H2AX phosphorylation (γH2AX), which is a marker of DNA damage. We evaluated the effects of the ROS inhibitor N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and the JNK inhibitor SP600125 on fluoride-induced SIRT1/autophagy activation. NAC decreased fluoride-induced ROS generation and attenuated JNK and c-Jun phosphorylation. NAC decreased SIRT1 phosphorylation and formation of the autophagy marker LC3II, which resulted in an increase in the apoptosis mediators γH2AX and cleaved/activated caspase-3. SP600125 attenuated fluoride-induced SIRT1 phosphorylation, indicating that fluoride activates SIRT1/autophagy via the ROS-mediated JNK pathway. In enamel organs from rats or mice treated with 50, 100, or 125 ppm fluoride for 6 weeks, cytochrome-c release and the DNA damage markers 8-oxoguanine, p-ATM, and γH2AX were increased compared to those in controls (0 ppm fluoride). These results suggest that fluoride-induced ROS generation causes mitochondrial damage and DNA damage, which may lead to impairment of ameloblast function. To counteract this impairment, SIRT1/autophagy is induced via JNK signaling to protect cells/ameloblasts from fluoride-induced oxidative damage that may cause dental fluorosis.  相似文献   
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