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排序方式: 共有466条查询结果,搜索用时 110 毫秒
1.
Cardiorespiratory disease, which includes systemic arterial hypertension, restenosis, atherosclerosis, pulmonary arterial hypertension, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are highly prevalent and devastating diseases with limited therapeutic modalities. A common pathophysiological theme to these diseases is cellular remodeling, which is contributed by changes in expression and activation of ion channels critical for either excitability or growth. Calcium (Ca2+) signaling and specifically ORAI Ca2+ channels have emerged as significant regulators of smooth muscle, endothelial, epithelial, platelet, and immune cell remodeling. This review details the dysregulation of ORAI in cardiorespiratory diseases, and how this dysregulation of ORAI contributes to cellular remodeling.  相似文献   
2.
Mucus hypersecretion is a clinically important manifestation of chronic inflammatory airway diseases, such as asthma and Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Mucin production in airway epithelia is increased under conditions of oxidative stress. Src homology 2 domain-containing protein tyrosine phosphatase (SHP)-1 suppression is related to the development of airway inflammation and increased ROS levels. In this study, we investigated the role of SHP-1 in mucin secretion triggered by oxidative stress. Human lung mucoepidermoid H292 carcinoma cells were transfected with specific siRNA to eliminate SHP-1 gene expression. Cultured cells were treated with hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and Mucin 5AC(MUC5AC) gene expression and mucin production were determined. Activation of p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) in association with MUC5AC production was evaluated. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) was employed to determine whether antioxidants could block MUC5AC production. To establish the precise role of p38, mucin expression was observed after pre-treatment of SHP-1-depleted H292 cells with the p38 chemical blocker. We investigated the in vivo effects of oxidative stress on airway mucus production in SHP-1-deficient heterozygous (mev/+) mice. MUC5AC expression was enhanced in SHP-1 knockdown H292 cells exposed to H2O2, compared to that in control cells. The ratio between phosphorylated and total p38 was significantly increased in SHP-1-deficient cells under oxidative stress. Pre-treatment with NAC suppressed both MUC5AC production and p38 activation. Blockage of p38 MAPK led to suppression of MUC5AC mRNA expression. Notably, mucin production was enhanced in the airway epithelia of mev/+ mice exposed to oxidative stress. Our results clearly indicate that SHP-1 plays an important role in airway mucin production through regulating oxidative stress.  相似文献   
3.
The chitinase-like protein YKL-40, encoded by the CHI3L1 gene, is a biomarker and functional effector of chronic inflammatory and allergic diseases. In the lung it is associated with asthma severity and reduced lung function. The cellular sources of YKL-40 in human airways and the mechanisms regulating YKL-40 expression are poorly understood. We previously showed that mechanical stress similar to that experienced during bronchoconstriction triggers epithelial cell signaling through epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR), fibrotic mediator release, and goblet cell hyperplasia consistent with airway remodeling in asthma. We now show that well differentiated normal human bronchial epithelial cells express CHI3L1 and secrete YKL-40 under base-line culture conditions. Mechanical stress (30-cm H2O transcellular compressive stress) applied for 3 h induces CHI3L1 expression by ∼4-fold compared with time matched controls, resulting in increased secretion of YKL-40 by 3.6-fold 24 h after onset of the 3-h stimulus. Inhibition of EGFR or MEK1/2 (ERK kinase) significantly but incompletely attenuates mechanical stress-induced up-regulation of CHI3L1 expression in normal human bronchial epithelial cells. Direct activation of EGFR utilizing EGF-family ligands induces CHI3L1 expression. Our results reveal that human airway epithelial cells are a source of YKL-40 and demonstrate that mechanical stress potently induces CHI3L1 expression leading to increased secretion of YKL-40 protein in an EGFR and MEK1/2-dependent pathway. In the asthmatic airway mechanical stress may contribute to enhanced YKL-40 levels.  相似文献   
4.
The purpose of this study was to explore new insights in non-linearity, hysteresis and ventilation heterogeneity of asthmatic human lungs using four-dimensional computed tomography (4D-CT) image data acquired during tidal breathing. Volumetric image data were acquired for 5 non-severe and one severe asthmatic volunteers. Besides 4D-CT image data, function residual capacity and total lung capacity image data during breath-hold were acquired for comparison with dynamic scans. Quantitative results were compared with the previously reported analysis of five healthy human lungs. Using an image registration technique, local variables such as regional ventilation and anisotropic deformation index (ADI) were estimated. Regional ventilation characteristics of non-severe asthmatic subjects were similar to those of healthy subjects, but different from the severe asthmatic subject. Lobar airflow fractions were also well correlated between static and dynamic scans (R2 > 0.84). However, local ventilation heterogeneity significantly increased during tidal breathing in both healthy and asthmatic subjects relative to that of breath-hold perhaps because of airway resistance present only in dynamic breathing. ADI was used to quantify non-linearity and hysteresis of lung motion during tidal breathing. Non-linearity was greater on inhalation than exhalation among all subjects. However, exhalation non-linearity among asthmatic subjects was greater than healthy subjects and the difference diminished during inhalation. An increase of non-linearity during exhalation in asthmatic subjects accounted for lower hysteresis relative to that of healthy ones. Thus, assessment of non-linearity differences between healthy and asthmatic lungs during exhalation may provide quantitative metrics for subject identification and outcome assessment of new interventions.  相似文献   
5.
Sulfuretin is one of the main flavonoids produced by Rhus verniciflua, which is reported to inhibit the inflammatory response by suppressing the NF-κB pathway. Because NF-κB activation plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of allergic airway inflammation, we here examined the effect of sulfuretin on an ovalbumin-induced airway inflammation model in mice. We isolated sulfuretin from R. verniciflua. Sulfuretin was delivered intraperitoneally after the last ovalbumin challenge. Airway hyper-responsiveness, cytokines, mucin, and eosinophilic infiltration were analyzed in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid and lung tissue. A single administration of sulfuretin reduced airway inflammatory cell recruitment and peribronchiolar inflammation and suppressed the production of various cytokines in bronchoalveolar fluid. In addition, sulfuretin suppressed mucin production and prevented the development of airway hyper-responsiveness. The protective effect of sulfuretin was mediated by the inhibition of the NF-κB signaling pathway. Our results suggest that sulfuretin may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of allergic airway inflammation.  相似文献   
6.
A series of novel β2-adrenoceptor agonists with a 5-(2-amino-1-hydroxyethyl)-8-hydroxyquinolin-2(1H)-one moiety was designed, synthesized and evaluated for biological activity in human embryonic kidney 293 cells and isolated guinea pig trachea. Compounds 9g and (R)-18c exhibited the most excellent β2-adrenoceptor agonistic effects and high β21-selectivity with EC50 values of 36 pM for 9g and 21 pM for (R)-18c. They produced potent airway smooth muscle relaxant effects with fast onset of action and long duration of action in an in vitro guinea pig trachea model of bronchodilation. These results support further development of the two compounds into drug candidates.  相似文献   
7.
A novel series of 2-amino-2-phenylethanol derivatives were developed as β2-adrenoceptor agonists. Among them, 2-amino-3-fluoro-5-(2-hydroxy-1-(isopropylamino)ethyl)benzonitrile (compound 2f) exhibited the highest activity (EC50 = 0.25 nM) in stimulating β2-adrenoceptor-mediated cellular cAMP production with a 763.6-fold selectivity over the β1-adrenoceptor. The (S)-isomer of 2f was subsequently found to be 8.5-fold more active than the (R)-isomer. Molecular docking was performed to determine the putative binding modes of this new class of β2-adrenoceptor agonists. Taken together, these data show that compound 2f is a promising lead compound worthy of further study for the development of β2-adrenoceptor agonists.  相似文献   
8.
《Biomarkers》2013,18(1):5-16
Abstract

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), asthma and cystic fibrosis (CF) are characterized by airway obstruction and an inflammatory process. Reaching early diagnosis and discrimination of subtypes of these respiratory diseases are quite a challenging task than other chronic illnesses. Metabolomics is the study of metabolic pathways and the measurement of unique biochemical molecules generated in a living system. In the last decade, metabolomics has already proved to be useful for the characterization of several pathological conditions and offers promises as a clinical tool. In this article, we review the current state of the metabolomics of COPD, asthma and CF with a focus on the different methods and instrumentation being used for the discovery of biomarkers in research and translation into clinic as diagnostic aids for the choice of patient-specific therapies.  相似文献   
9.
Many asthmatic patients experience aggravation of symptoms overnight resulting in disruption of their sleep. Sustained-release theophylline represents at this time a major bronchodilator medication which possesses a sufficient duration of activity to avert the nocturnal breathing distress of asthma. Circadian rhythm-adapted theophylline schedules consisting of unequal dosing—more or all the drug taken in the evening—have proven efficacious in clinical investigations for certain patients. Although the kinetic behavior of some formulations is affected by food, the circadian rhythm-adapted schedules represent a significant step forward toward the goal of optimizating sustained-release theophyllines for patients who experience nighttime symptoms.  相似文献   
10.
Inhibition of the non-receptor tyrosine kinase ITK, a component of the T-cell receptor signalling cascade, may represent a novel treatment for allergic asthma. Here we report the structure-based optimization of a series of benzothiazole amides that demonstrate sub-nanomolar inhibitory potency against ITK with good cellular activity and kinase selectivity. We also elucidate the binding mode of these inhibitors by solving the X-ray crystal structures of several inhibitor-ITK complexes.  相似文献   
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