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1.
Objective: Pleural effusion is common problem, but the rapid and reliable diagnosis for specific pathogenic effusions are lacking. This study aimed to identify the diagnosis based on clinical variables to differentiate pleural tuberculous exudates from other pleural effusions. We also investigated the role of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs) in the pathogenesis of pleural exudates.Experimental design: The major components in RAS and extracellular matrix metabolism, including angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), ACE2, MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities, were measured and compared in the patients with transudative (n = 45) and exudative (n = 80) effusions. The exudative effusions were come from the patients with tuberculosis (n = 20), pneumonia (n = 32), and adenocarcinoma (n = 28).Results: Increased ACE and equivalent ACE2 activities, resulting in a significantly increased ACE/ACE2 ratio in exudates, were detected compared to these values in transudates. MMP-9 activity in exudates was significantly higher than that in transudates. The significant correlation between ACE and ACE2 activity that was found in transudates was not found in exudates. Advanced analyses showed significantly increased ACE and MMP-9 activities, and decreased ACE2 activity in tuberculous pleural effusions compared with those in pneumonia and adenocarcinoma effusions. The results indicate that increased ACE and MMP-9 activities found in the exudates were mainly contributed from a higher level of both enzyme activities in the tuberculous pleural effusions.Conclusion: Interplay between ACE and ACE2, essential functions in the RAS, and abnormal regulation of MMP-9 probably play a pivotal role in the development of exudative effusions. Moreover, the ACE/ACE2 ratio combined with MMP-9 activity in pleural fluid may be potential biomarkers for diagnosing tuberculous pleurisy.  相似文献   
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Additive reagents have been investigated to improve the stability of methanolic Wright's stain. The addition of ammonium halides, monoalkyiamine hydrochlorides, dialkylamine hydrochlorides or trialkylamine hydrochlorides to methanolic Wright's stain was found to enhance the stability of stain components in methanol. No change in performance is observed with these additives present. Random precipitation in the stain solution was still observed with the addition of ammonium halides and monoalkyiamine hydrochlorides. No precipitation was found in stain solutions containing hydrochlorides of most dialkylamines and trialkylamines. Of the compounds evaluated, 0.6% diethylamine hydrochloride added to methanolic stain solutions produced the most desirable overall results. Mechanisms of stabilization and precipitation in these stain solutions are proposed, Essentially, separation of the thiazine-eosinate ion pair through interaction with an appropriate additive increases stain stability. The solubilities of thiazine-eosinate or additive cation-eosinate ion pairs in methanol determine the formation of precipitate in such stain solutions.  相似文献   
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Studies of HIV prevention interventions such as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PREP) and circumcision in India are limited. The present study sought to investigate Indian truck-drivers initial commitment to PREP and circumcision utilizing the AIDS Risk Reduction Model. Ninety truck-drivers completed an in-depth qualitative interview and provided a blood sample for HIV and HSV-2 testing. Truck-drivers exhibited low levels of initial commitment towards PREP and even lower for circumcision. However, potential leverage points for increasing commitment were realized in fear of infecting family rather than self, self-perceptions of risk, and for PREP focusing on cultural beliefs towards medication and physicians. Cost was a major barrier to both HIV prevention interventions. Despite these barriers, our findings suggest that the ARRM may be useful in identifying several leverage points that may be used by peers, health care providers and public health field workers to enhance initial commitment to novel HIV prevention interventions in India.  相似文献   
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Increasing evidence indicates an increased risk of tuberculosis (TB) for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients receiving biologic therapy, and the effectiveness of isoniazid prophylaxis (INHP) in TB prevention. We aimed to examine 1) the incidence rate (IR) and risk factors for TB among RA patients receiving different therapies; 2) INHP effectiveness for TB prevention; 3) mortality rates after TB diagnosis in patients receiving different therapies. This retrospective study was conducted using a nationwide database: 168,720 non-RA subjects and a total of 42,180 RA patients including 36,162 csDMARDs-exposed, 3,577 etanercept-exposed, 1,678 adalimumab-exposed and 763 rituximab-exposed patients. TB risk was 2.7-fold higher in RA cohort compared with non-RA group, with an adjusted hazard ratio (aHR) of 2.58. Advanced age, male, the use of corticosteroids≧5mg/day, and the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and chronic kidney disease were risk factors for developing TB. Using csDMARDs-exposed group as reference, aHR of TB was the highest with adalimumab treatment (1.52), followed by etanercept (1.16), and the lowest with rituximab (0.08). INHP could effectively reduce TB risk in biologics-exposed patients. Mortality rates after TB diagnosis were higher in RA patients, particularly the elderly and those with DM, with lower rates in adalimumab-exposed patients compared with csDMARDs-exposed patients. In conclusion, TB risk was increased in patients receiving TNF-α inhibitors, but the risk associated with rituximab therapy was relatively low. With the effectiveness of INHP shown in the prevention of biologics-associated TB, stricter implementation of INHP should be beneficial. The mortality from biologics–associated TB may be efficiently reduced through increased awareness.  相似文献   
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Four of six human monoclonal IgM proteins were found to react best with Klebsiella polysaccharides containing 3,4py beta DGal (pyruvic acetalated D-galactopyranose), one with Klebsiella polysaccharides with 4,6pyDGlc; the sixth is uncharacterized. The combining sites of two of these (IgMWEA and IgMNAE) were essentially indistinguishable by quantitative precipitin studies at varying pH and by quantitative precipitin inhibition assays, but the other two differed in specificity of their combining sites from these and from each other. These differences were detected by precipitin inhibition assays with 3,4py beta DGal-containing oligosaccharide alditols, the R and S isomers of methyl 4,6py alpha DGal, the R isomer of methyl 4,6py beta DGal, or the R and S isomers of methyl 4,6py alpha DGlc, and -beta DGlc. In all of these except the S isomer of methyl 4,6pyDGal and R isomer of methyl 4,6pyDGlc, the carboxyl group is axial to the plane of the acetal ring. Their specificity appears to be determined by the nonreducing ends of chains and is considered to be cavity-type.  相似文献   
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We have previously described the chemoattraction of lymphoblasts by lysophosphatidylcholine [Hoffman, R. D., et al. (1982) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 79, 3285-3289]. In studying the mechanism of chemoattraction it was found that lysophosphatidylcholine was metabolized to 1,2-diacylglycerol by the lymphoblastic cell line 6C3HED. One route of metabolism involves the acylation of lysophosphatidylcholine to phosphatidylcholine with subsequent hydrolysis to 1,2-diacylglycerol and phosphocholine by the action of phospholipase C. The increase in cellular 1,2-diacylglycerol was established by metabolic experiments using [14C]glycerol-labeled lysophosphatidylcholine and by mass measurements of 1,2-diacylglycerol. The presence of a phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing phospholipase C was confirmed in 6C3HED cell homogenates. In intact cells, lysophosphatidylcholine induced a pattern of protein phosphorylation similar to those of 1,2-dioctanoylglycerol and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, two known activators of protein kinase C. This pathway of lysophosphatidylcholine metabolism, which involves a phosphatidylcholine-hydrolyzing phospholipase C, may be important in the activation of protein kinase C independent of inositol phospholipid hydrolysis.  相似文献   
10.
Denervation of rat ventral prostate has been accomplished by excising prostatic tissue fragments and implanting them under the renal capsules of intact syngeneic rats. This resulted in a substantial reduction of expression of a major organ-specific secretory protein, prostatic binding protein (PBP). The depressed level of PBP and its subunits and mRNAs could be restored, however, to as much as 80% of control levels by the administration of a pharmacological dose of exogenous androgen, testosterone propionate (TP), and/or a beta-adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol (ISO). Furthermore, compared to ascorbate-treated controls, TP and ISO increased the synthesis of total cellular protein and PBP by the prostatic renal implants. TP and/or ISO also remodelled the luminal epithelial structure and elevated secretory functions. ISO alone had no effect, however, in castrated animals, indicating that androgen plays a dominant role in the restoration of tissue PBP content. Concomitant to increased PBP content and remodelling of prostatic histomorphology, androgen was also found to raise the depressed levels of beta 2-adrenergic and androgen receptors in the prostatic isografts maintained in intact hosts. In contrast, although an established rat prostatic epithelial cell line (NbE-1) contains high affinity androgen receptor, androgen failed to restore beta-adrenergic receptor as well as PBP content in this cultured cell line. These results, taken together, suggest that a tight coupling between androgen receptor and beta 2-adrenergic receptor pathways may be a prerequisite for PBP expression and functional differentiation in the rat ventral prostate gland.  相似文献   
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