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1.
Objective: Pleural effusion is common problem, but the rapid and reliable diagnosis for specific pathogenic effusions are lacking. This study aimed to identify the diagnosis based on clinical variables to differentiate pleural tuberculous exudates from other pleural effusions. We also investigated the role of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs) in the pathogenesis of pleural exudates.Experimental design: The major components in RAS and extracellular matrix metabolism, including angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), ACE2, MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities, were measured and compared in the patients with transudative (n = 45) and exudative (n = 80) effusions. The exudative effusions were come from the patients with tuberculosis (n = 20), pneumonia (n = 32), and adenocarcinoma (n = 28).Results: Increased ACE and equivalent ACE2 activities, resulting in a significantly increased ACE/ACE2 ratio in exudates, were detected compared to these values in transudates. MMP-9 activity in exudates was significantly higher than that in transudates. The significant correlation between ACE and ACE2 activity that was found in transudates was not found in exudates. Advanced analyses showed significantly increased ACE and MMP-9 activities, and decreased ACE2 activity in tuberculous pleural effusions compared with those in pneumonia and adenocarcinoma effusions. The results indicate that increased ACE and MMP-9 activities found in the exudates were mainly contributed from a higher level of both enzyme activities in the tuberculous pleural effusions.Conclusion: Interplay between ACE and ACE2, essential functions in the RAS, and abnormal regulation of MMP-9 probably play a pivotal role in the development of exudative effusions. Moreover, the ACE/ACE2 ratio combined with MMP-9 activity in pleural fluid may be potential biomarkers for diagnosing tuberculous pleurisy.  相似文献   
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A tip-focused Ca^2+ gradient is tightly coupled to polarized pollen tube growth, and tip-localized influxes of extracellular Ca^2+ are required for this process. However the molecular identity and regulation of the potential Ca^2+ channels remains elusive. The present study has implicated CNGC18 (cyclic nucleotide-gated channel 18) in polarized pollen tube growth, because its overexpression induced wider and shorter pollen tubes. Moreover, CNGC18 overexpression induced depolarization of pollen tube growth was suppressed by lower extracellular calcium ([Ca^2+]ex). CNGC18-yellow fluorescence protein (YFP) was preferentially localized to the apparent post-Golgi vesicles and the plasma membrane (PM) in the apex of pollen tubes. The PM localization was affected by tip-localized ROP1 signaling. Expression of wild type ROP1 or an active form of ROP1 enhanced CNGC18-YFP localization to the apical region of the PM, whereas expression of RopGAP1 (a ROP1 deactivator) blocked the PM localization. These results support a role for PM-Iocalized CNGC18 in the regulation of polarized pollen tube growth through its potential function in the modulation of calcium influxes.  相似文献   
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Ginsenoside compound K (CK), a rare ginsenoside originating from Panax Ginseng, has been found to possess unique pharmacological activities specifically as anti-cancers. However, the role of cytochrome P450s (CYPs) in the metabolism of CK is unclear. In this study, we screened the CYPs for the metabolism of CK in vitro using human liver microsomes (HLMs) or human recombinant CYPs. The results showed that CK inhibited the enzyme activities of CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 in the HLMs. The Km and Vmax values of CK were 84.20±21.92 μM and 0.28±0.04 nmol/mg protein/min, respectively, for the HLMs; 34.63±10.48 μM and 0.45±0.05 nmol/nmol P450/min, respectively, for CYP2C9; and 27.03±5.04 μM and 0.68±0.04 nmol/nmol P450/min, respectively, for CYP3A4. The IC50 values were 16.00 μM and 9.83 μM, and Ki values were 14.92 μM and 11.42μM for CYP2C9 and CYP3A4, respectively. Other human CYP isoforms, including CYP1A2, CYP2A6, CYP2D6, CYP2E1, and CYP2C19, showed minimal or no effect on CK metabolism. The results suggested that CK was a substrate and also inhibitors for both CYP2C9 and CYP3A4. Patients using CK in combination with therapeutic drugs that are substrates of CYP2C9 and CYP3A4 for different reasons should be careful, although the inhibiting potency of CK is much poorer than that of enzyme-specific inhibitors.  相似文献   
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Previously, it was found that the ancient Chinese remedy of Suanzaorentang could be a promising anxiolytic drug (Chen and Hsieh, 1985a, Chen and Hsieh, 1985b). To understand the mechanism of the action of Suanzaorentang, the effects of Suanzaorentang on behavior changes and central monoamines and their metabolites were studied in rats. It was found that Suanzaorentang significantly (1) prolonged the period from the onset of clonic to tonic convulsions induced by pentylenetetrazol or picrotoxin, (2) prolonged the sleep duration induced by hexobarbital, (3) reduced locomotor activity, (4) enhanced the hypomotility induced by alpha-MT, (5) reduced the locomotor stimulation produced by levodopa plus benserazide, and (6) reduced central HVA, VMA, and 5-HIAA, but had no significant effects on central DA, NA, and 5-HT. These facts implied that Suanzaorentang decreased the turnover rate of central monoamines and central catecholaminergic activity.  相似文献   
6.
Summary The kinetics of thermal deactivation for thermostable DNA polymerase enzymes were investigated by using the experimental data published elsewhere (Nielson et al. 1996. Strategies. 9, 7–8). The order of deactivation (a) and the deactivation rate constants (k d) were determined for different Taq DNA polymerase enzymes and were found to be of first order.  相似文献   
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A method for the immobilization of lipoxygenase (LOX) in an alginate-silicate gel matrix was developed. In this method, a mixture of calcium alginate beads and LOX in borate buffer are dispersed into a hexane solution of tetramethoxy-ortho-silicate (TMOS). Hydrolysis of the TMOS gives products that permeate and co-polymerize with the alginate gel to form a colloid within the beads that entraps the LOX. Optimum reaction conditions for sol-gel entrapment of LOX are at pH 9.0 in 0.2M borate buffer. The composite gel, after isolation and vacuum drying, had excellent protein retention that has good enzyme activity and stability at room temperature. The activity of the entrapped LOX was less than the activity of the free enzyme. However, the activity of the immobilized LOX can be restored by the addition of borate buffer and glycerol, or borate buffer saturated with an organic solvent. In contrast to the free enzyme in solution, which loses its activity in less than one day, sol-gel entrapped LOX retains its activity at ambient temperature for at least 25 days and can be recycled. This report demonstrates that the sol-gel entrapment method for immobilizing LOX can be useful in developing a process for the oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids.  相似文献   
10.
A convenient method for enzyme kinetic studies is introduced. The method includes identification of reaction mechanism and estimation of the associated kinetic constants with a minimum number of experiments. The application of the method is illustrated by using literature data. Factors limiting the application of this method are also discussed.  相似文献   
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