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1.
The discovery that the single p53 gene encodes several different p53 protein isoforms has initiated a flurry of research into the function and regulation of these novel p53 proteins. Full-length p53 protein level is primarily regulated by the E3-ligase Mdm2, which promotes p53 ubiquitination and degradation. Here, we report that all of the novel p53 isoforms are ubiquitinated and degraded to varying degrees in an Mdm2-dependent and -independent manner, and that high-risk human papillomavirus can degrade some but not all of the novel isoforms, demonstrating that full-length p53 and the p53 isoforms are differentially regulated. In addition, we provide the first evidence that Mdm2 promotes the NEDDylation of p53β. Altogether, our data indicates that Mdm2 can distinguish between the p53 isoforms and modify them differently.  相似文献   
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We sought to determine whether the orexigenic hormone, ghrelin, is involved in the intrinsic regulation of food choice in rats. Ghrelin would seem suited to serve such a role given that it signals hunger information from the stomach to brain areas important for feeding control, including the hypothalamus and reward system (e.g. ventral tegmental area, VTA). Thus, in rats offered a choice of palatable foods (sucrose pellets and lard) superimposed on regular chow for 2 weeks, we explored whether acute central delivery of ghrelin (intracerebroventricular (ICV) or intra-VTA) is able to redirect their dietary choice. The major unexpected finding is that, in rats with high baseline lard intake, acute ICV ghrelin injection increased their chow intake over 3-fold, relative to vehicle-injected controls, measured at both 3 hr and 6 hr after injection. Similar effects were observed when ghrelin was delivered to the VTA, thereby identifying the VTA as a likely contributing neurobiological substrate for these effects. We also explored food choice after an overnight fast, when endogenous ghrelin levels are elevated, and found similar effects of dietary choice to those described for ghrelin. These effects of fasting on food choice were suppressed in models of suppressed ghrelin signaling (i.e. peripheral injection of a ghrelin receptor antagonist to rats and ghrelin receptor (GHSR) knock-out mice), implicating a role for endogenous ghrelin in the changes in food choice that occur after an overnight fast. Thus, in line with its role as a gut-brain hunger hormone, ghrelin appears to be able to acutely alter food choice, with notable effects to promote “healthy” chow intake, and identify the VTA as a likely contributing neurobiological substrate for these effects.  相似文献   
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Understanding ectomycorrhizal fungal (EMF) community structure is limited by a lack of taxonomic resolution and autecological information. Rhizopogon vesiculosus and Rhizopogon vinicolor (Basidiomycota) are morphologically and genetically related species. They are dominant members of interior Douglas‐fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii var. glauca) EMF communities, but mechanisms leading to their coexistence are unknown. We investigated the microsite associations and foraging strategy of individual R. vesiculosus and R. vinicolor genets. Mycelia spatial patterns, pervasiveness and root colonization patterns of fungal genets were compared between Rhizopogon species and between xeric and mesic soil moisture regimes. Rhizopogon spp. mycelia were systematically excavated from the soil and identified using microsatellite DNA markers. Rhizopogon vesiculosus mycelia occurred at greater depth, were more spatially pervasive, and colonized more tree roots than R. vinicolor mycelia. Both species were frequently encountered in organic layers and between the interface of organic and mineral horizons. They were particularly abundant within microsites associated with soil moisture retention. The occurrence of R. vesiculosus shifted in the presence of R. vinicolor towards mineral soil horizons, where R. vinicolor was mostly absent. This suggests that competition and foraging strategy may contribute towards the vertical partitioning observed between these species. Rhizopogon vesiculosus and R. vinicolor mycelia systems occurred at greater mean depths and were more pervasive in mesic plots compared with xeric plots. The spatial continuity and number of trees colonized by genets of each species did not significantly differ between soil moisture regimes.  相似文献   
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Litter decomposition is a major driver of carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycles in forest ecosystems and has major implications for C sequestration and nutrient availability. However, empirical information regarding long-term decomposition rates of foliage and wood remains rare. In this study, we assessed long-term C and N dynamics (12–13 years) during decomposition of foliage and wood for three boreal tree species, under a range of harvesting intensities and slash treatments. We used model selection based on the second-order Akaike’s Information Criterion to determine which decomposition model had the most support. The double-exponential model provided a good fit to C mass loss for foliage of trembling aspen, white spruce, and balsam fir, as well as aspen wood. These litters underwent a rapid initial phase of leaching and mineralisation, followed by a slow decomposition. In contrast, for spruce and fir wood, the single-exponential model had the most support. The long-term average decay rate of wood was faster than that of foliage for aspen, but not of conifers. However, we found no evidence that fir and spruce wood decomposed at slower rates than the recalcitrant fraction of their foliage. The critical C:N ratios, at which net N mineralisation began, were higher for wood than for foliage. Long-term decay rates following clear-cutting were either similar or faster than those observed in control stands, depending on litter material, tree species, and slash treatment. The critical C:N ratios were reached later and decreased for all conifer litters following stem-only clear-cutting, indicating increased N retention in harvested sites with high slash loads. Partial harvesting had weak effects on C and N dynamics of decaying litters. A comprehensive understanding of the long-term patterns and controls of C and N dynamics following forest disturbance would improve our ability to forecast the implications of forest harvesting for C sequestration and nutrient availability.  相似文献   
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The structures of the complexes (CuX)2DPM (X = Br, I; DMP = bis(diphenylphosphino)methane) were determined from three dimensional X-ray data collected by counter methods. The iodine derivative crystallizes in the space group Pbca with eight units in a cell defined by a = 17.128(9), b = 18.306(9) c, = 16.508 (8) Å. The structure was refined by the least-squares method to a final R factor of 0.054 for 1336 non-zero independent reflections. The bromine derivative crystallizes in the space group P21/c with eight units in a cell defined by a = 23.707(1), b = 17.805(9), c = 16.991(1) Å, β = 136.10(5)°. The final least-squares refinement, based on 2489 non-zero independent reflections, gave an R factor of 0.074.Both the compounds have similar structures with a centrosymmetric (CuX)4 core, in which two copper atoms have a tetrahedral geometry, while the other two are trigonal.The above structures are compared with those already reported for other compounds (CuX)nLm and a single scheme is proposed to rationalize the different geometries of the (CuX)n core on the basis of steric and electronic effects.  相似文献   
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Interventions are needed to protect the health of children who live with smokers. We pilot-tested a real-time intervention for promoting behavior change in homes that reduces second hand tobacco smoke (SHS) levels. The intervention uses a monitor and feedback system to provide immediate auditory and visual signals triggered at defined thresholds of fine particle concentration. Dynamic graphs of real-time particle levels are also shown on a computer screen. We experimentally evaluated the system, field-tested it in homes with smokers, and conducted focus groups to obtain general opinions. Laboratory tests of the monitor demonstrated SHS sensitivity, stability, precision equivalent to at least 1 µg/m3, and low noise. A linear relationship (R2 = 0.98) was observed between the monitor and average SHS mass concentrations up to 150 µg/m3. Focus groups and interviews with intervention participants showed in-home use to be acceptable and feasible. The intervention was evaluated in 3 homes with combined baseline and intervention periods lasting 9 to 15 full days. Two families modified their behavior by opening windows or doors, smoking outdoors, or smoking less. We observed evidence of lower SHS levels in these homes. The remaining household voiced reluctance to changing their smoking activity and did not exhibit lower SHS levels in main smoking areas or clear behavior change; however, family members expressed receptivity to smoking outdoors. This study established the feasibility of the real-time intervention, laying the groundwork for controlled trials with larger sample sizes. Visual and auditory cues may prompt family members to take immediate action to reduce SHS levels. Dynamic graphs of SHS levels may help families make decisions about specific mitigation approaches.  相似文献   
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The Annual bioProcessUK Conference has acted as the key networking event for bioprocess scientists and engineers in the UK for the past 10 years. The following article is a report from the sessions that focused on continuous bioprocessing during the 10th Annual bioProcessUK Conference (London, December 2013). These sessions were organized by the ‘EPSRC Centre for Innovative Manufacturing in Emergent Macromolecular Therapies’ hosted at University College London. A plenary lecture and workshop provided a forum for participants to debate topical issues in roundtable discussions with industry and academic experts from institutions such as Genzyme, Janssen, Novo Nordisk, Pfizer, Merck, GE Healthcare and University College London. The aim of these particular sessions was to understand better the challenges and opportunities for continuous bioprocessing in the bioprocessing sector.  相似文献   
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The effect of theophylline and isoproterenol on bovine tracheal smooth muscle tension and cyclic AMP levels was investigated. Concentrations of isoproterenol (4 × 10?6 M) and theophylline (10 mM) that relaxed carbachol-contracted tracheal muscle by 85–95% did not significantly elevate control levels of cyclic AMP. In the absence of carbachol, several-fold increases in cyclic AMP were caused by isoproterenol although no elevations by theophylline were measurable. However, when isoproterenol and theophylline were administered together, theophylline potentiated the rise in cyclic AMP caused by isoproterenol. Phosphodiesterase studies in tracheal muscle showed the presence of a high and a low Km enzyme which were inhibited by theophylline. Cyclic GMP levels were elevated in muscles contracted by carbachol as well as in carbachol-contracted muscles that had been relaxed by theophylline. In non-tension studies, in which the tracheal muscle was not under isometric tension, carbachol or theophylline alone increased cyclic GMP and together they synergistically elevated cyclic GMP. Atropine blocked the elevation caused by carbachol but not that caused by theophylline. In contrast to theophylline, isoproterenol did not elevate cyclic GMP, and in carbachol-contracted muscles that had been relaxed by isoproterenol, cyclic GMP levels were no different from control. Also, in non-tension studies, isoproterenol decreased basal cyclic GMP and antagonized the increase in cyclic GMP due to carbachol.The results indicate that whole-tissue levels of cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP do not correlate with the state of tracheal smooth muscle tension. Cyclic GMP levels do not clearly correlate with either contraction or relaxation. The inhibition by carbachol of increases in cyclic AMP due to isoproterenol and the inhibition by isoproterenol of increases in cyclic GMP due to carbachol provide evidence for a reciprocal cholinergic-adrenergic antagonism of cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP levels. The antagonism did not appear to be due to either cyclic nucleotide affecting the elevation of the other since the levels of both cyclic nucleotides were depressed.  相似文献   
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