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1.
The discovery that the single p53 gene encodes several different p53 protein isoforms has initiated a flurry of research into the function and regulation of these novel p53 proteins. Full-length p53 protein level is primarily regulated by the E3-ligase Mdm2, which promotes p53 ubiquitination and degradation. Here, we report that all of the novel p53 isoforms are ubiquitinated and degraded to varying degrees in an Mdm2-dependent and -independent manner, and that high-risk human papillomavirus can degrade some but not all of the novel isoforms, demonstrating that full-length p53 and the p53 isoforms are differentially regulated. In addition, we provide the first evidence that Mdm2 promotes the NEDDylation of p53β. Altogether, our data indicates that Mdm2 can distinguish between the p53 isoforms and modify them differently.  相似文献   
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Using a modification of the basic two-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis technique, the polypeptides of the protein map of Saccharomyces cerevisiae involved in glycolysis were investigated. This study resulted in a reassignment of two of the seven glycolytic enzyme polypeptides previously identified (Ludwig et al., Mol. Cell. Biol. 2:117-126, 1982), those corresponding to phosphoglycerate kinase and to alcohol dehydrogenase. It also resulted in the identification of two additional glycolytic polypeptides, the enolase B monomer and the glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase B monomer. The glycolytic enzymes polypeptides so identified were investigated in 5 laboratory strains (all S. cerevisiae) and in 11 commerical strains used for wine making (S. cerevisiae and Saccharomyces bayanus). It appeared highly significant that a particular electrophoretic variant of the glyceraldehyde phosphate dehydrogenase B monomer was found only in the wine yeasts. Furthermore, it was strongly suggested that S. cerevisiae and S. bayanus strains are distinguishible on the basis of a different electrophoretic migration of the enolase B monomer.  相似文献   
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A model is formulated to examine the possibility of (co)existence of plasmids of the same incompatibility and surface exclusion group in a bacterial population living under a feast-and-famine regime. The condition is given under which a growth rate decreasing plasmid can invade a bacterial population. It appears that in case only one plasmid type is present, the frequency of plasmid bearers will tend to a stable equilibrium if the food supply at each growth site gets exhausted and if both plasmid-free and plasmid-bearing bacteria need an equal quantity of food per cell division. If these two conditions are not satisfied, the frequency of plasmid-bearers might oscillate. Two plasmids will sometimes be able to coexist, but only if they follow different survival strategies; one with a high conjugational transfer rate and a lower fitness of its host, and the other with a low transfer rate and a higher host fitness. Coexistence of three plasmids of the same surface exclusion group is impossible.  相似文献   
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Summary The nucleocapsid protein of Moloney murine leukemia virus (NCp10) is a 56-amino acid protein which contains one zinc finger of the CysX2CysX4HisX4Cys form, a highly conserved motif present in most retroviruses and retroelements. At pH5, NCp10 binds one zinc atom and the complexation induces a folding of the CysX2CysX4HisX4Cys box, similar to that observed for the zinc-binding domains of HIV-1 NC protein. The three-dimensional structure of NCp10 has been determined in aqueous solution by 600 MHz 1H NMR spectroscopy. The proton resonances could be almost completely assigned by means of phase-sensitive double-quantum-filtered COSY, TOCSY and NOESY techniques. NOESY spectra yielded 597 relevant structural constraints, which were used as input for distance geometry calculations with DIANA. Further refinement was performed by minimization with the program AMBER, which was modified by introducing a zinc force field. The solution structure is characterized by a well-defined central zinc finger (rmsd of 0.747±0.209 Å for backbone atoms and 1.709±0.187 Å when all atoms are considered), surrounded by flexible N- and C-terminal domains. The Tyr28, Trp35, Lys37, Lys41 and Lys42 residues, which are essential for activity, lie on the same face of the zinc finger, forming a bulge structure probably involved in viral RNA binding. The significance of these structural characteristics for the various biological functions of the protein is discussed, taking into account the results obtained with various mutants.  相似文献   
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Effect of heat stress on glucose kinetics during exercise   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
Hargreaves, Mark, Damien Angus, Kirsten Howlett, Nelly MarmyConus, and Mark Febbraio. Effect of heat stress on glucose kinetics during exercise. J. Appl.Physiol. 81(4): 1594-1597, 1996.To identify themechanism underlying the exaggerated hyperglycemia during exercise inthe heat, six trained men were studied during 40 min of cyclingexercise at a workload requiring 65% peak pulmonary oxygen uptake(O2 peak) on twooccasions at least 1 wk apart. On one occasion, the ambient temperaturewas 20°C [control (Con)], whereas on the other, it was40°C [high temperature (HT)]. Rates ofglucose appearance and disappearance were measured by using a primedcontinuous infusion of[6,6-2H]glucose. Nodifferences in oxygen uptake during exercise were observed betweentrials. After 40 min of exercise, heart rate, rectal temperature,respiratory exchange ratio, and plasma lactate were all higher in HTcompared with Con (P < 0.05). Plasmaglucose levels were similar at rest (Con, 4.54 ± 0.19 mmol/l; HT,4.81 ± 0.19 mmol/l) but increased to a greater extent duringexercise in HT (6.96 ± 0.16) compared with Con (5.45 ± 0.18;P < 0.05). This was the result of ahigher glucose rate of appearance in HT during the last 30 min ofexercise. In contrast, the glucose rate of disappearance and metabolicclearance rate were not different at any time point during exercise.Plasma catecholamines were higher after 10 and 40 min of exercise in HTcompared with Con (P < 0.05),whereas plasma glucagon, cortisol, and growth hormone were higher in HTafter 40 min. These results indicate that the hyperglycemia observedduring exercise in the heat is caused by an increase in liver glucoseoutput without any change in whole body glucoseutilization.

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Bombyx mori posterior silkgland cells exhibit an impressive microfilament apparatus located at the cellular apex. It consists of bundles of packed, long microfilaments of 50–70 Å diameter running along circumferences delimiting the lumen of the gland, perpendicularly to the flow of luminal silk. Microfilaments are closely associated with microtubules of the cytoplasmic ‘radial microtubule system’. Immunolabelling with purified antihuman actin antibodies was used to demonstrate their actin-like nature. Apical microfilaments are sensitive to cytochalasin B (CB) which selectively inhibits the secretion of fibroin. Following the removal of the drug, microfilaments recover their normal morphology and secretion resumes. The possible implication of contraction of microfilaments in the process of secretion is discussed.  相似文献   
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The oligosaccharide β-d-Man-(1 → 4)-α-l-Rha (1 → 3)-d-Gal-(6 ← 1)-α-d-Glc, which is the repeating unit of the O-specific polysaccharide chain of the lipopolysaccharide from Salmonella senftenberg, was obtained by glycosylation of benzyl 2,4-di-O-benzyl-6-O-(2,3,4-tri-O-benzyl-6-O-p-nitrobenzoyl-α-d-glucopyranosyl)-β-d-galactopyranoside or benzyl 2-O-acetyl-6-O-(2,3,4-tri-O-benzyl-6-O-p-nitrobenzoyl-α-d-glucopyranosyl)-β-d-galactopyranoside with 3-O-acetyl-4-O-(2,3,4,6-tetra-O-acetyl-β-d-mannopyranosyl)-β-l-rhamnopyranose 1,2-(methyl orthoacetate) followed by removal of protecting groups.  相似文献   
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