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1.
The role of DNA sequence in determining nucleosome positions in vivo was investigated by comparing the positions adopted by nucleosomes reconstituted on a yeast plasmid in vitro using purified core histones with those in native chromatin containing the same DNA, described previously. Nucleosomes were reconstituted on a 2.5 kilobase pair DNA sequence containing the yeast TRP1ARS1 plasmid with CUP1 as an insert (TAC-DNA). Multiple, alternative, overlapping nucleosome positions were mapped on TAC-DNA. For the 58 positioned nucleosomes identified, the relative positioning strengths and the stabilities to salt and temperature were determined. These positions were, with a few exceptions, identical to those observed in native, remodeled TAC chromatin containing an activated CUP1 gene. Only some of these positions are utilized in native, unremodeled chromatin. These observations suggest that DNA sequence is likely to play a very important role in positioning nucleosomes in vivo. We suggest that events occurring in yeast CUP1 chromatin determine which positions are occupied in vivo and when they are occupied.  相似文献   
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Since their discovery, matrix vesicles (MVs) containing minerals have received considerable attention for their role in the mineralization of bone, dentin and calcified cartilage. Additionally, MVs' association with collagen fibrils, which serve as the scaffold for calcification in the organic matrix, has been repeatedly highlighted. The primary purpose of the present study was to establish a MVs–mimicking model (PEG-S-ACP/micelle) in vitro for studying the exact mechanism of MVs-mediated extra/intra fibrillar mineralization of collagen in vivo. In this study, high-concentration serine was used to stabilize the amorphous calcium phosphate (S-ACP), which was subsequently mixed with polyethylene glycol (PEG) to form PEG-S-ACP nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were loaded in the polysorbate 80 micelle through a micelle self-assembly process in an aqueous environment. This MVs–mimicking model is referred to as the PEG-S-ACP/micelle model. By adjusting the pH and surface tension of the PEG-S-ACP/micelle, two forms of minerals (crystalline mineral nodules and ACP nanoparticles) were released to achieve the extrafibrillar and intrafibrillar mineralization, respectively. This in vitro mineralization process reproduced the mineral nodules mediating in vivo extrafibrillar mineralization and provided key insights into a possible mechanism of biomineralization by which in vivo intrafibrillar mineralization could be induced by ACP nanoparticles released from MVs. Also, the PEG-S-ACP/micelle model provides a promising methodology to prepare mineralized collagen scaffolds for repairing bone defects in bone tissue engineering.  相似文献   
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Diabetic nephropathy (DN) as a global health concern is closely related to inflammation and oxidation. Isoliquiritigenin (ISL), a natural flavonoid compound, has been demonstrated to inhibit inflammation in macrophages. Herein, we investigated the effect of ISL in protecting against the injury in STZ-induced type 1 DN and in high glucose-induced NRK-52E cells. In this study, it was revealed that the administration of ISL not only ameliorated renal fibrosis and apoptosis, but also induced the deterioration of renal function in diabetic mice. Mediated by MAPKs and Nrf-2 signaling pathways, respectively, upstream inflammatory response and oxidative stress were neutralized by ISL in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, as further revealed by the results of molecular docking, sirtuin 1 (SIRT1) binds to ISL directly, and the involvement of SIRT1 in ISL-mediated renoprotective effects was confirmed by studies using in vitro models of SIRT1 overexpression and knockdown. In summary, by reducing inflammation and oxidative stress, ISL has a significant pharmacological effect on the deterioration of DN. The benefits of ISL are associated with the direct binding to SIRT1, the inhibition of MAPK activation, and the induction of Nrf-2 signaling, suggesting the potential of ISL for DN treatment.Subject terms: Pharmacology, Molecular biology  相似文献   
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The molecular mechanism that controls the proliferation and differentiation of prostate epithelial cells is currently unknown. We previously identified a 44-kDa protein (p44/wdr77) as an androgen receptor-interacting protein that regulates a set of androgen receptor target genes in prostate epithelial cells and prostate cancer. In this study, we found that p44 localizes in the cytoplasm of prostate epithelial cells at the early stage of prostate development when cells are proliferating, and its nuclear translocation is associated with cellular and functional differentiation in adult prostate tissue. We further demonstrated that cytoplasmic p44 protein is essential for proliferation of prostate epithelial cells, whereas nuclear p44 is required for cell differentiation and prostate- specific protein secretion. These studies suggest a novel mechanism by which proliferation and differentiation of prostate epithelial cells are controlled by p44’s location in the cell.  相似文献   
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Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a subtype of malignant liver cancer with poor prognosis and limited treatment options. It is noteworthy that mechanical forces in tumor microenvironment play a pivotal role in mediating the behaviors and functions of tumor cells. As an instrumental type of mechanical forces in vivo, fluid shear stress (FSS) has been reported having potent physiologic and pathologic effects on cancer progression. However, the time-dependent mechanochemical transduction in HCC induced by FSS remains unclear. In this study, hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells were exposed to 1.4 dyn/cm2 FSS for transient duration (15s and 30s), short duration (5 min, 15 min and 30 min) and long duration (1h, 2h and 4h), respectively. The expression and translocation of Integrins induced FAK-Rho GTPases signaling events were examined. Our results showed that FSS endowed HepG2 cells with higher migration ability via reorganizing cellular F-actin and disrupting intercellular tight junctions. We further demonstrated that FSS regulated the expression and translocation of Integrins and their downstream signaling cascade in time-dependent patterns. The FSS downregulated focal adhesion components (Paxillin, Vinculin and Talin) while upregulated the expression of Rho GTPases (Cdc42, Rac1 and RhoA) in long durations. These results indicated that FSS enhanced tumor cell migration through Integrins-FAK-Rho GTPases signaling pathway in time-dependent manners. Our in vitro findings shed new light on the role of FSS acting in physiologic and pathological processes during tumor progression, which has emerged as a promising clinical strategy for liver carcinoma.  相似文献   
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Aim Data and analyses of elevational gradients in diversity have been central to the development and evaluation of a range of general theories of biodiversity. Elevational diversity patterns have, however, been severely understudied for microbes, which often represent decomposer subsystems. Consequently, generalities in the patterns of elevational diversity across different trophic levels remain poorly understood. Our aim was to examine elevational gradients in the diversity of macroinvertebrates, diatoms and bacteria along a stony stream that covered a large elevational gradient. Location Laojun Mountain, Yunnan province, China. Methods The sampling scheme included 26 sites spaced at elevational intervals of 89 m from 1820 to 4050 m elevation along a stony stream. Macroinvertebrate and diatom richness were determined based on the morphology of the specimens. Taxonomic richness for bacteria was quantified using a molecular fingerprinting method. Over 50 environmental variables were measured at each site to quantify environmental variables that could correlate with the patterns of diversity. We used eigenvector‐based spatial filters with multiple regressions to account for spatial autocorrelation. Results The bacterial richness followed an unexpected monotonic increase with elevation. Diatoms decreased monotonically, and macroinvertebrate richness showed a clear unimodal pattern with elevation. The unimodal richness pattern for macroinvertebrates was best explained by the mid‐domain effect (r2 = 0.72). The diatom richness was best explained by the variation in nutrient supply, and the increase in bacterial richness with elevation may be related to an increased carbon supply. Main conclusions We found contrasting patterns in elevational diversity among the three studied multi‐trophic groups comprising unicellular and multicellular aquatic taxa. We also found that there may be fundamental differences in the mechanisms underlying these species diversity patterns.  相似文献   
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