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1.
The discovery that the single p53 gene encodes several different p53 protein isoforms has initiated a flurry of research into the function and regulation of these novel p53 proteins. Full-length p53 protein level is primarily regulated by the E3-ligase Mdm2, which promotes p53 ubiquitination and degradation. Here, we report that all of the novel p53 isoforms are ubiquitinated and degraded to varying degrees in an Mdm2-dependent and -independent manner, and that high-risk human papillomavirus can degrade some but not all of the novel isoforms, demonstrating that full-length p53 and the p53 isoforms are differentially regulated. In addition, we provide the first evidence that Mdm2 promotes the NEDDylation of p53β. Altogether, our data indicates that Mdm2 can distinguish between the p53 isoforms and modify them differently.  相似文献   
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Summary The feasibility of using plant cell culture to measure toxicity was determined by investigating the toxicological effects of three chemical compounds, allyl alcohol, propargylglycine, and cadmium chloride, on cell cultures ofCatharanthus roseus G. Don (Madagascar periwinkle). Suspension cultures ofC. roseus were maintained in modified B5 medium and transferred every 5 d. Five-day-old cell cultures were exposed to various concentrations (10,3,1,0.3,0.1,0.03,0.01,0.003,0.001,0.0003,0.0001, 0.00003, and 0.0 mM) of the toxicants in both acute and chronic toxicity tests. In the acute test, cells were exposed to the toxicant for 24 h, washed three times with sterile medium, and plated in petri plates with an equal volume of 1.4% agar medium. Cells in the chronic test were plated with an equal volume of 1.4% agar medium containing various concentrations of the toxicant. Cells were incubated 28 d at 30°C in the dark. The colonies were counted and the results plotted as percent survival versus toxicant concentration. The results indicate, at the concentrations tested, thatC. roseus assay may be feasible in that it fulfills the criteria for a practical assay (e.g., rapid, simple, quantifiable, and reproducible). This work was submitted to the faculty of Miami University in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Environmental Science, Institute of Environmental Sciences.  相似文献   
4.
Tuberculate mycorrhizae on Pinus contorta (lodgepole pine) have previously been shown to reduce acetylene, but an outstanding question has been to what degree these structures could meet the nitrogen requirements of the tree. We compared the growth, tissue nitrogen contents, and stable nitrogen isotope ratios of P. contorta growing in gravel pits to the same species growing on adjacent intact soil. Trees growing in severely nitrogen deficient gravel pits had virtually identical growth rates and tissue nitrogen contents to those growing on intact soil that had nitrogen levels typical for the area. δ15N values for trees in the gravel pits were substantially lower than δ15N values for trees on intact soil, and isotope ratios in vegetation were lower than the isotope ratios of the soil. The form of soil nitrogen in the gravel pits was almost exclusively nitrate, while ammonium predominated in the intact soil. Discrimination against 15N during plant uptake of soil nitrate in the highly N-deficient soil should be weak or nonexistent. Therefore, the low δ15N in the gravel pit trees suggests that trees growing in gravel pits were using another nitrogen source in addition to the soil. Precipitation-borne nitrogen in the study area is extremely low. In conjunction with our other work, these findings strongly suggests that P. contorta and its microbial symbionts or associates fix nitrogen in sufficient amounts to sustain vigorous tree growth on the most nitrogen-deficient soils.  相似文献   
5.
The use of rosemary essential oil (RO) and its combination with nisin (RO+N) in preventing the multiplication of Alicyclobacillus acidoterrestris in orange juice was evaluated. The minimum inhibitory and bactericidal concentrations (MIC and MBC) for RO were both 125 μg ml−1 while RO+N displayed a synergistic effect. The use of RO and RO+N at concentrations of 1, 4 and 8× MIC in orange juice for 96 h was evaluated in terms of their sporicidal effectiveness. With regard to the action against A. acidoterrestris spores, RO at 8× MIC was sporostatic, whereas RO+N at 1× MIC was sporicidal. Morphological changes in the structure of the micro-organism after treatment were also observed by microscopy. Furthermore, flow cytometric analysis showed that most cells were damaged or killed after treatment. In general, the antioxidant activity after addition of RO+N decreased with time. The results demonstrate that using the combination of RO and nisin can prevent the A. acidoterrestris growth in orange juice.  相似文献   
6.
Two forms of a carbon monoxide-binding cytochrome were found to exist in CaCl2-precipitated microsomal subfractions of human placental homogenates at term. These exhibited absorption maxima at wavelengths of 450 nm and 421–432 nm. Conversion of P-450 to the degradation product could be prevented by resuspension of the microsomes in buffered solutions containing 20% glycerol and 10?4M dithiothreitol. Solubilization of such resuspended microsomes with sodium cholate could be effected with minimal degradation. The solubilized pigment then could be partially purified by differential fractionation with ammonium sulfate. The partially purified cytochromes did not appear to bind desmethylimpramine but did bind aniline and nicotinamide to yield atypical type II difference spectra with maxima at 435 nm and minima at 416 nm. A type I difference spectrum could be elicited with androstenedione and a spectral dissociation constant (KS) of 4.7×10?8M was obtained. Androstenedione also appeared to effectively prevent the binding of carbon monoxide to the cytochrome.  相似文献   
7.
Summary Pleiotropic mutants of Serratia marcescens have been isolated. They synthesize greater quantities of the bacteriocin marcescin A and exocellular lipase and exhibit higher rates of spontaneous induction of prophage than does the wild-type strain. These mutants were found to contain more marcescin A plasmid DNA than the parent strain and, furthermore, this increase in plasmid DNA was observed to be proportional to the increase in synthesis of marcescin A. From these results it is proposed that the mutation functions via a gene-dosage effect (at least in the case of bacteriocin synthesis) and causes an elevated synthesis of bacteriocin plasmid DNA.A preliminary report of this work was presented to the 1972 Summer Meeting of the Gesellschaft für Physiologische Chemie held in Bochum, Germany (Timmis and Winkler, 1972).  相似文献   
8.
Two acrasid cellular slime molds. Guttulinopsis vulgaris and G. nivea, are compared at the ultrastructural level. The amoebae of the two species are indistinguishable except for the presence of intranuclear fibers in G. vulgaris. Both species share some unusual features, including: plate-like cristae in the mitochondria, production of microbody-like organelles in the perinuclear space, spores with thin bilaminar walls, and stalks containing microfilaments bound in striated bundles. These and other observations are discussed with regard to the development of the sorocarps and the relationship of the genus to other members of the Acrasida.  相似文献   
9.
The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of various methods of sperm selection and various sperm-oocyte co-incubation times on in vitro fertilization (IVF) of zebu (Bos indicus) oocytes. Frozen semen from one ejaculate of a single bull was used for all treatments and replicates. After thawed, sperm was subjected to one of the three treatments: 45 and 90% discontinuous Percoll gradient, swim-up and washing by centrifugation. In all treatments, the spermatozoa were incubated with in vitro matured oocytes for 3, 6, 12 and 18h. After co-incubation oocytes were transferred to the culture medium and culture for 44h, when the cleavage was evaluated. The uncleavaged oocytes were fixed and stained to determine penetration, pronucleus formation and polyspermy. The sperm selection method did not influence (P<0.05) polyspermy, pronucleus formation, penetration and cleavage rates. No interaction between method of selection and sperm-oocyte co-incubation time was observed (P>0.05). However, sperm-oocyte co-incubation time affected fertilization. The lower penetration (26.5%) and cleavage rates (13.1%) were obtained at 3-h period. The penetration and cleavage percentages increased (P<0.05) progressively at 6h (63.3 and 54.4%) and 12h (77.6 and 67.6%). No differences (P>0.05) were observed between 12 and 18h of incubation for penetration and cleavage rates. The incidence of polyspermy and pronucleus formation was similar (P>0.05) for all time points. It is concluded that the methods used in this study for sperm selection do not affect fertilization; therefore, they all can be used for bovine IVF. In addition, regardless the method used better fertilization results were obtained when sperm and oocytes were co-incubated for 12h, and the prolongation of that time for up to 18h had no detrimental effect on fertilization.  相似文献   
10.
Published gene frequency data, checked for consistency of allele definitions across laboratories and for comparability of geographically identical samples, were pooled into a data set containing frequencies at nine loci for each of 20 populations that encompassed 10 macaque species. Genetic distances were calculated by the methods of Kidd and Cavalli-Sforza (1974). These distances were used to construct phylogenetic trees and to evaluate the relationships between divergence times and effective population sizes. Inter-and intraspecific genetic distances and the groupings defined by phenetic tree analyses support Fooden’s (1976) classification of the genus Macacainto four species groups. A paleozoogeographical model of Asia including the known times of major sea-level changes allows us to explain Macacainto four species groups. A paleozoogeographical model of Asia including the known times of major sea-level changes allows us to explain qualitatively the inferred evolutionary relationships among macaque species. Many assumptions are required in order to estimate the variables necessary in the quantitative prediction of genetic differences for a comparison between any two populations. Examination of those assumptions demonstrates the need for more accurate genetic as well as paleozoogeographic information. An erratum to this article is available at .  相似文献   
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