首页 | 本学科首页   官方微博 | 高级检索  
文章检索
  按 检索   检索词:      
出版年份:   被引次数:   他引次数: 提示:输入*表示无穷大
  收费全文   335113篇
  免费   37354篇
  国内免费   192篇
  2018年   2886篇
  2017年   2728篇
  2016年   3908篇
  2015年   5392篇
  2014年   6323篇
  2013年   8892篇
  2012年   10104篇
  2011年   10102篇
  2010年   6875篇
  2009年   6206篇
  2008年   8965篇
  2007年   9433篇
  2006年   8724篇
  2005年   8411篇
  2004年   8144篇
  2003年   7893篇
  2002年   7889篇
  2001年   18206篇
  2000年   18439篇
  1999年   14150篇
  1998年   4263篇
  1997年   4517篇
  1996年   4321篇
  1995年   4029篇
  1994年   3962篇
  1993年   3799篇
  1992年   11516篇
  1991年   11171篇
  1990年   10717篇
  1989年   10275篇
  1988年   9519篇
  1987年   8878篇
  1986年   8105篇
  1985年   7977篇
  1984年   6407篇
  1983年   5575篇
  1982年   4118篇
  1981年   3603篇
  1980年   3364篇
  1979年   6120篇
  1978年   4575篇
  1977年   4131篇
  1976年   3769篇
  1975年   4340篇
  1974年   4504篇
  1973年   4400篇
  1972年   4095篇
  1971年   3506篇
  1970年   3173篇
  1969年   2976篇
排序方式: 共有10000条查询结果,搜索用时 46 毫秒
1.
A patient with chronic anemia is presented who radiologically showed prominent rugae of the stomach. Angiography demonstrated an arteriovenous malformation with a large feeding artery and prominent draining veins.  相似文献   
2.
Changes in the protein and steroid hormones of follicular fluid, aspirated from different follicles of sheep and human ovaries, have been measured and correlated with the size of the follicles. As the fluid contains a number of proteins, steroids have been measured directly and after ether extraction. The follicular fluid concentrations of progesterone and 17 beta-oestradiol measured directly in the fluid increased with the size of the follicles. The levels of free testosterone remained constant in all sizes of follicles, while those of bound hormone showed a 10- to 15-fold increase over the free testosterone concentrations in both the sheep and human follicular fluid. A decrease in the levels of bound testosterone in the fluid of large follicles (LFFL) coincided with the increase in bound 17 beta-oestradiol, suggesting the possible conversion of bound testosterone to oestrogen as the follicle attained maturity. The ratio of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) to luteinizing hormone (LH) varied in the fluid obtained from different size follicles, being 1:7 in small (SFFL), 1.3.5 in medium (MFFL) and 1:2.3 in large (LFFL) follicles of sheep ovaries. The LH content of follicular fluid of different size follicles appeared to be the same, with LFFL showing a minor increase over SFFL. In the human, the fluid from medium follicles contained very little LH compared to LFFL. These differences in the pattern of LH levels present in the fluid from different size follicles between human and sheep ovaries presumably reflect species variations in the entry of LH into the follicles.  相似文献   
3.
4.
In vivo EMG biofeedback was found to be an effective pedagogical tool for removing unwanted left-hand tension in nine violin and viola players. Improvement occurred rapidly and persisted throughout a 5-month follow-up period. Further studies will be necessary to assess the effect of biofeedback independent of placebo effects. The brevity of the method and the magnitude of improvement warrant further investigation.  相似文献   
5.
Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) power saturation and saturation recovery methods have been used to determine the spin lattice, T1, and spin-spin, T2, relaxation times of P-700+ reaction-center chlorophyll in Photosystem I of plant chloroplasts for 10 K less than or equal to T less than or equal to 100 K. T1 was 200 mus at 100 K and increased to 900 mus at 10 K. T2 was 40 ns at 40 K and increased to 100 ns at 10 K. T1 for 40 K less than or equal to T less than or equal to 100 K is inversely proportional to temperature, which is evidence of a direct-lattice relaxation process. At T = 20 K, T1 deviates from the 1/T dependence, indicating a cross relaxation process with an unidentified paramagnetic species. The individual effects of ascorbate and ferricyanide on T1 of P-700+ were examined: T1 of P-700+ was not affected by adding 10 mM ascorbate to digitonin-treated chloroplast fragments (D144 fragments). The P-700+ relaxation time in broken chloroplasts treated with 10 mM ferricyanide was 4-times shorter than in the untreated control at 40 K. Ferricyanide appears to be relaxing the P-700+ indirectly to the lattice by a cross-relaxation process. The possibility of dipolar-spin broadening of P-700+ due to either the iron sulfur center A or plastocyanin was examined by determining the spin-packet linewidth for P-700+ when center A and plastocyanin were in either the reduced or oxidized states. Neither reduced center A nor oxidized plastocyanin was capable of broadening the spin-packet linewidth of P-700+ signal. The absence of dipolar broadening indicates that both center A and plastocyanin are located at a distance at least 3.0 nm from the P-700+ reaction center chlorophyll. This evidence supports previous hypotheses that the electron donor and acceptor to P-700 are situated on opposite sides of the chloroplast membrane. It is also shown that the ratio of photo-oxidized P-700 to photoreduced centers A and B at low temperature is 2 : 1 if P-700 is monitored at a nonsaturating microwave power.  相似文献   
6.
K Fukuda  T Kouyama 《Biochemistry》1992,31(47):11740-11747
The absorption spectrum of light-adapted purple membrane in 3 M KCl is dependent on temperature even in the room temperature region. Temperature-induced difference spectra at various pH values suggested that the trans isomer of bacteriorhodopsin, bR570, is in thermal and/or photodynamic equilibrium with several different conformers. The major second conformer occurring at neutral pH had the same spectroscopic properties as the 13-cis isomer, and its content at 35 degrees C was estimated to be more than 20%. Heterogeneity in the protein conformation became more significant above pH8, where temperature-induced difference spectra exhibited a negative peak at 580 nm and a positive peak at 296 nm. This absorption change is very similar to that observed upon the formation of the N intermediate, suggesting that an N-like conformer occurs at high pH and temperature. A significant temperature dependence was also seen in the M decay kinetics at high pH, which were described by two decay components; i.e., the fast decaying M (Mf) was predominant at low temperature, but the amplitude of the slow component (M(s)) increased with increasing temperature. It is suggested that M(s) is generated upon excitation of the N-like conformer, in which the residue (Asp-96) usually acting as a proton donor to the Schiff base is deprotonated. The N-like conformer could be N itself, because M(s) was enhanced when N was accumulated by background light. A strong correlation between the amplitude of M(s) and the concentration of N was also revealed by the accumulation kinetics of Mf, M(s), and N after the onset of continuous actinic light.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)  相似文献   
7.
Potassium depletion decreases blood pressure in vivo and blunts the pressor response to angiotensin II (ang II) without down-regulating the receptor. In cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells, the ang II-induced signaling sequence is biphasic with rapid hydrolysis of the polyphosphoinositides producing an early (15 s) diacylglycerol (DG) peak and a transient rise in inositol trisphosphate (IP3) and more delayed phosphatidylinositol (PI) hydrolysis resulting in sustained DG formation (peak at 5 min). Exposure of intact vascular smooth muscle cells to low potassium growth medium for 24 h or acutely potassium-depleting cells with nigericin causes selective, marked inhibition of late DG formation (5-min peak inhibited by 60 +/- 8% and 84 +/- 7%, respectively). The early cell response, namely polyphosphoinositide hydrolysis, inositol bis- and trisphosphate production and the 15-s DG peak, is not affected. Analysis of 125I-ang II-binding data reveals no significant differences in either receptor number or binding affinity (Kd) in potassium-depleted cells. Together with its marked inhibitory effect on sustained ang II-induced DG formation, acute potassium depletion effectively blocks internalization of 125I-ang II: there is no significant internalization of the ligand after 5 min at 37 degrees C versus 64 +/- 7% internalization in control cells. Thus, potassium depletion does not alter ang II binding or initial membrane signaling in rat aortic smooth muscle but blocks ligand internalization and selectively and markedly inhibits the development of direct PI hydrolysis and sustained diacylglycerol formation. These findings suggest a role for ligand-receptor processing in generating the sustained cell response and potentially explain the lower blood pressure and decreased pressor response to ang II seen in hypokalemic states in vivo. Furthermore, the ability of K+ depletion to alter secondary signal generation may provide insight into the mechanisms underlying the K+ dependence of a variety of cell functions.  相似文献   
8.
Training-induced bradycardia and intrinsic heart rate in rats   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
After 10 weeks of treadmill training, female Sprague-Dawley rats had developed a bradycardia at exercise on submaximal work loads. This bradycardia was also present after autonomic denervation and in isolated perfused heart preparations. The heart weight/body weight ratio was increased in these trained animals compared to untrained littermates. Sympathectomized, trained rats developed the same degree of cardiac hypertrophy, but their heart rate after denervation and in the isolated heart was the same as in sympathectomized, untrained rats. It is concluded that the bradycardia of trained and thereafter denervated animals seen in this and a previous investigation represents an adaptation within the heart itself, since it was present in the isolated heart. These results thus provide further evidence for a non-neural component in training-induced bradycardia. Since the trained sympathectomized rats had a cardiac hypertrophy but no reduction of intrinsic heart rate, it seems likely that the myocardial mass is of minor importance for the level of intrinsic heart rate.  相似文献   
9.
L-lysine-alpha-oxidase, a new fungal enzyme catalyzing oxidative deamination of L-lysine, exerts an inhibitory effect on DNA, RNA and protein synthesis in human cells of carcinoma ovarius (CaOv) in vitro.  相似文献   
10.
Exposure of male Syrian hamsters (Mesocricetus auratus) for 10 weeks to short photoperiod (SP) providing 10 hr light: 14 hr darkness (10:14 LD) produced a significant reduction in the weights of the reproductive organs, plasma thyroxine (T4) levels and free T4 index (FT4I) compared to the values of animals exposed to long photoperiod (LP, 14:10 LD). C57bl male house mice (Mus musculus) kept in SP (10:14 LD) had reproductive organ weights equivalent to those of mice kept in long days (14:10 LD) and lower T3 uptake (T3U) values. Male gerbils (Meriones unguiculatus) exposed to 13 weeks of SP (10:14 LD) had lower body weights, testes and seminal vesicle weights and higher T3U values compared to LP (14:10 LD) controls. However, no effect was seen on plasma T4 and triiodothyronine (T3) values nor the FT4I and free T3 index (FT3I). White-footed male mice (Peromyscus leucopus) exposed to SP (8:16 LD) had significantly lower testes and seminal vesicle weights while plasma T4 and T3 levels were unaffected. Snell strain house mice (Mus musculus) exposed to SP (8:16 LD) had normal reproductive organ weights compared to the values of LP-exposed (16:8 LD) control animals. However, there was a significant depression in T3 and in the FT3I in the SP animals.  相似文献   
设为首页 | 免责声明 | 关于勤云 | 加入收藏

Copyright©北京勤云科技发展有限公司  京ICP备09084417号