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1.
The discovery that the single p53 gene encodes several different p53 protein isoforms has initiated a flurry of research into the function and regulation of these novel p53 proteins. Full-length p53 protein level is primarily regulated by the E3-ligase Mdm2, which promotes p53 ubiquitination and degradation. Here, we report that all of the novel p53 isoforms are ubiquitinated and degraded to varying degrees in an Mdm2-dependent and -independent manner, and that high-risk human papillomavirus can degrade some but not all of the novel isoforms, demonstrating that full-length p53 and the p53 isoforms are differentially regulated. In addition, we provide the first evidence that Mdm2 promotes the NEDDylation of p53β. Altogether, our data indicates that Mdm2 can distinguish between the p53 isoforms and modify them differently.  相似文献   
2.
Mouse and human cDNA clones encoding the T-cell and mast cell growth factor P40, now designated IL-9, were used to identify DNA restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs) in sets of somatic cell hybrids and between inbred strains of mice and interspecific backcross progeny. Segregation of mouse and human chromosomes among somatic cell hybrids indicated a location on mouse chromosome 13 and human chromosome 5. RFLPs were identified among inbred strains of mice. Analysis of chromosome 13 alleles for Tcrg, Dhfr, and Il-9 in an interspecific cross between Mus musculus and NFS/N or C58/J mice indicates that IL-9 is distal to Tcrg and Proximal to Dhfr.  相似文献   
3.
Sequence analysis of two human tenascin encoding cDNA clones from a cDNA library of the U251 glioblastoma cell line revealed the presence of a novel 276 bp tenascin type III fibronectin like repeat. This alternatively spliced type III repeat designated AD1 is located between the previously identified repeats 10 and 11 and has sequence homology with human, chicken and mouse tenascin type III repeats. These results show that tenascin has at least 16 consecutive fibronectin like type III repeats. PCR amplification of random primed mRNA with specific type III repeat primers revealed a pattern of multiple alternative splices of AD1 and flanking type III repeats. The alternative splice variants were confirmed by direct sequencing. Differences were observed in the expression of the various alternative splices of tenascin mRNA between tumor and normal cells and may thus indicate differences in tenascin isoform expression and function in normal and tumor cells. PCR and Southern analysis of genomic DNA indicate that AD1 is coded by a single exon present in both human and mouse genome.  相似文献   
4.
In connectivity models, land cover types are assigned cost values characterizing their resistance to species movements. Landscape genetic methods infer these values from the relationship between genetic differentiation and cost distances. The spatial heterogeneity of population sizes, and consequently genetic drift, is rarely included in this inference although it influences genetic differentiation. Similarly, migration rates and population spatial distributions potentially influence this inference. Here, we assessed the reliability of cost value inference under several migration rates, population spatial patterns and degrees of population size heterogeneity. Additionally, we assessed whether considering intra-population variables, here using gravity models, improved the inference when drift is spatially heterogeneous. We simulated several gene flow intensities between populations with varying local sizes and spatial distributions. We then fit gravity models of genetic distances as a function of (i) the ‘true’ cost distances driving simulations or alternative cost distances, and (ii) intra-population variables (population sizes, patch areas). We determined the conditions making the identification of the ‘true’ costs possible and assessed the contribution of intra-population variables to this objective. Overall, the inference ranked cost scenarios reliably in terms of similarity with the ‘true’ scenario (cost distance Mantel correlations), but this ‘true’ scenario rarely provided the best model goodness of fit. Ranking inaccuracies and failures to identify the ‘true’ scenario were more pronounced when migration was very restricted (<4 dispersal events/generation), population sizes were most heterogeneous and some populations were spatially aggregated. In these situations, considering intra-population variables helps identify cost scenarios reliably, thereby improving cost value inference from genetic data.  相似文献   
5.
The protein PLIM-1 (formerly SF3) from sunflower is expressed exclusively in mature, free pollen. It contains two LIM domains associated with an acidic C-terminus comprising six copies of the pentapeptide motif (A,T,S) (E,D) TQN. We have expressed the pollen protein as well as some of its mutant forms inEscherichia coli and have used the bacterially produced proteins to study interactions with nucleic acids. Our studies show that the protein binds DNA and RNA in vitro to form large complexes, while mutant polypeptides containing either a single LIM domain or a destabilized first or second LIM domain do not. Although these data suggest that the biological function of PLIM-1 involves interactions with nucleic acids, its role in pollen development remains unclear.  相似文献   
6.
Citrus trees are characterized by a large canopy and low hydraulicconductivity. In Israel's semi-arid summer climate this couldcause transpiration to exceed water uptake and cause temporaryexcessive water deficits. It was hypothesized that reductionof radiative load would reduce transpiration and thus reducedeficits. Net radiation of lemon trees in the hottest season was reducedby shading hedgerows with reflective nets for approximatelyone month in both 1994 and 1995. Stem sap flow and climate variableswere measured continuously. Daily courses of leaf conductanceand leaf water potentials were measured on selected days. Midday net radiation below the dense and sparse shade net treatmentswas 47% and 73% of that above the control trees. Midday ‘sunlit’leaf temperatures below the nets were reduced by 2.7 and 1.6C,respectively. The reduction in net radiation caused large changes in leafconductance. Average midday sunlit leaf conductance measuredin 1995 under the dense and sparse treatments and control were4.1, 2.9 and 1.8mm s–1, respectively (significantly differentat P <0.01). Similar differences in sunlit leaf conductancewere found in 1994. Shade leaf conductance was not affectedby the treatments. Daily total and midday sap flow under the dense net were reducedby 6–7% and 10–11%, respectively. Sap flow underthe sparse net did not change significantly in 1994, but in1995 daily and midday sap flows were reduced by 6% and 7%, respectively.Midday leaf water potentials increased by 0.2 and 0.1 MPa underdense shade in 1994 and 1995, respectively. Under sparse shademidday leaf water potentials increased by 0.1 MPa in 1994, butdid not change significantly in 1995. A modified Penman-Monteith model evaluated transpiration ifleaf conductance were constant in the different radiation environments.At leaf conductance levels found in the unshaded trees, denseshade was estimated to cause a 25% reduction in transpiration,while leaf conductance values found in trees under the denseshade would lead to an increase in transpiration of more than35% in unshaded trees. The ability of the tree to maintain almost constant transpirationin different radiation environments and thus avoid water deficitby adjusting the conductance of sunlit leaves is discussed interms of environmental influences and significance to the plant'swater balance. Key words: Tree transpiration, stomatal closure, climate modification, citrus  相似文献   
7.
The volume of the peritoneal exudate induced in the rat by iota carrageenan is reduced by subcutaneous administration of indomethacin while the concentrations of three lysosomial enzymes in the exudate are slightly increased or not modified. Thus, the total enzymatic activities of the exudate are reduced by indomethacin. The leucocyte accumulation remains unchanged in the indomethacin treated rats. During the development of the peritoneal exudate, the circulating plasma displays a high degree of lysosomial enzymes activity which is suppressed by indomethacin at the dose of 4 mg/kg.  相似文献   
8.
Six healthy young men (22 to 26 years) who had fasted for 12 hours volunteered for this study (subject synchronization: diurnal activity from 07(00) to midnight and nocturnal rest). A set dose of ethanol (0.67 g/kg body weight) was ingested at the fixed (and random) hours of 07(00), 11(00), 19(00) and 23(00), with a week between tests. A set of physiological variables: psychological tests (selft-rating of mood, of physical vigor and of ebriety, tempo, random number addition test); physical variables (heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, peak expiratory flow, oral temperature and grip strength); blood variables (plasma ethanol, cortisol, lactic acid, pyruvic acid, glucose and erythrocyte K+) and urinary variables (volume, epinephrine, nor-epinephrine and 5-HIAA) were documented at least at 4 hourly intervals and set times. The cosinor method was used for chronobiological statistical analyses. The parameters characterizing the ethanol pharmacokinetics (chronopharmacokinetics) demonstrated a circadian rhythm (p less than 0.05): e. g. the peak height of ethanolemia is greater when ethanol is ingested at 07(00) than at other times. Also a circadian rhythm in biosystems susceptibility can be demonstrated (p less than 0.05) (chronesthesy) with a peak time not necessarily corresponding either to that of ethanolemia or to that of other variables. The overall circadian changes in ethanol effects (chronergy) can be viewed as a combination of both ethanol chronesthesy and chronokinetics.  相似文献   
9.
Four species of Gnathusa Fenyes (G. alfacaribou Klimaszewski & Langor, G. caribou Lohse, G. eva Fenyes, and G. tenuicornis Fenyes) occur in the Nearctic and in Canada. Three species of Ocyusa Kraatz (O. asperula Casey, O. californica Bernhauer, O. canadensis Lohse), and three species of Mniusa Mulsant and Ray (M. minutissima (Klimaszewski & Langor), M. yukonensis (Klimaszewski & Godin), and M. odelli Klimaszewski & Webster, sp. n.), are known from the Nearctic and all but O. californica occur in Canada. The recently described Gnathusa minutissima Klimaszewski and Langor and Ocyusa yukonensis Klimaszewski and Godin, are transferred here to the genus Mniusa Mulsant & Rey. New provincial and state records are reported for: G. eva (Alberta), G. tenuicornis (Alberta, Oregon, and New Brunswick), O. canadensis (New Brunswick and Newfoundland), M. minutissima (New Brunswick), and M. yukonensis (Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Quebec, and British Columbia). The female of M. yukonensis was discovered and is illustrated for the first time. The genus Mniusa is reported for the first time from Canada and represents the first confirmed generic record for North America. Keys for identification of all Canadian species, images of body and genital structures, maps showing distribution mainly in Canada, and new bionomics data are provided.  相似文献   
10.
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