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1.
Replication of the flavivirus Kunjin virus is associated with virus-induced membrane structures within the cytoplasm of infected cells; these membranes appear as packets of vesicles associated with the sites of viral RNA synthesis and as convoluted membranes (CM) and paracrystalline arrays (PC) containing the components of the virus-specified protease (E. G. Westaway, J. M. Mackenzie, M. T. Kenney, M. K. Jones, and A. A. Khromykh, J. Virol. 71:6650-6661, 1997). To determine the cellular origins of these membrane structures, we compared the immunolabelling patterns of several cell markers in relation to these sites by immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy. A marker for the trans-Golgi membranes and the trans-Golgi network, 1,4-galactosyltransferase (GalT), was redistributed to large foci in the cytoplasm of Kunjin virus-infected cells, partially coincident with immunofluorescent foci associated with the putative sites of viral RNA synthesis. As determined by immunoelectron microscopy, the induced vesicle packets contained GalT, whereas the CM and PC contained a specific protein marker for the intermediate compartment (ERGIC53). A further indicator of the role of cellular organelles in their biogenesis was the observation that the Golgi apparatus-disrupting agent brefeldin A prevented further development of immunofluorescent foci of induced membranes if added before the end of the latent period but that once formed, these membrane foci were resistant to brefeldin A dispersion. Reticulum membranes emanating from the induced CM and PC were also labelled with the rough endoplasmic reticulum marker anti-protein disulfide isomerase and were obviously redistributed during infection. This is the first report identifying trans-Golgi membranes and the intermediate compartment as the apparent sources of the flavivirus-induced membranes involved in events of replication.  相似文献   
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It has been demonstrated that caleosin alone is sufficient to stabilize artificial oil bodies. A series of recombinant caleosins, mutated with 3, 5, 8, 11, 13, 15, and 17 extra Lys residues and over‐expressed in Escherichia coli, were used as carrier proteins to render biotin as a hapten on the surface of artificial oil bodies for antibody production. Biotinylation levels of the recombinant caleosins were step‐wisely elevated as the number of extra Lys residues increased, and the biotinylated Lys residues were identified by mass spectrometric analysis. Polyclonal antibodies against biotin were successfully generated in rats injected with artificial oil bodies constituted with each of the biotinylated caleosins. Moreover, those generated via the biotinylated caleosins with eight or more extra Lys residues no longer recognized caleosin. It appears that engineered Lys‐rich caleosins are suitable carrier proteins for the production of antibodies against small molecules. © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2011  相似文献   
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For decades, the bio-duck sound has been recorded in the Southern Ocean, but the animal producing it has remained a mystery. Heard mainly during austral winter in the Southern Ocean, this ubiquitous sound has been recorded in Antarctic waters and contemporaneously off the Australian west coast. Here, we present conclusive evidence that the bio-duck sound is produced by Antarctic minke whales (Balaenoptera bonaerensis). We analysed data from multi-sensor acoustic recording tags that included intense bio-duck sounds as well as singular downsweeps that have previously been attributed to this species. This finding allows the interpretation of a wealth of long-term acoustic recordings for this previously acoustically concealed species, which will improve our understanding of the distribution, abundance and behaviour of Antarctic minke whales. This is critical information for a species that inhabits a difficult to access sea-ice environment that is changing rapidly in some regions and has been the subject of contentious lethal sampling efforts and ongoing international legal action.  相似文献   
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Nonstructural protein 5A (NS5A) of hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an indispensable component of the HCV replication and assembly machineries. Although its precise mechanism of action is not yet clear, current evidence indicates that its structure and function are regulated by the cellular peptidylprolyl isomerase cyclophilin A (CyPA). CyPA binds to proline residues in the C-terminal half of NS5A, in a distributed fashion, and modulates the structure of the disordered domains II and III. Cyclophilin inhibitors (CPIs), including cyclosporine (CsA) and its nonimmunosuppressive derivatives, inhibit HCV infection of diverse genotypes, both in vitro and in vivo. Here we report a mechanism by which CPIs inhibit HCV infection and demonstrate that CPIs can suppress HCV assembly in addition to their well-documented inhibitory effect on RNA replication. Although the interaction between NS5A and other viral proteins is not affected by CPIs, RNA binding by NS5A in cell culture-based HCV (HCVcc)-infected cells is significantly inhibited by CPI treatment, and sensitivity of RNA binding is correlated with previously characterized CyPA dependence or CsA sensitivity of HCV mutants. Furthermore, the difference in CyPA dependence between a subgenomic and a full-length replicon of JFH-1 was due, at least in part, to an additional role that CyPA plays in HCV assembly, a conclusion that is supported by experiments with the clinical CPI alisporivir. The host-directed nature and the ability to interfere with more than one step in the HCV life cycle may result in a higher genetic barrier to resistance for this class of HCV inhibitors.  相似文献   
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Combination agents comprising two different pharmacophores with the same biological target have the potential to show additive or synergistic activity. Bis(thiosemicarbazonato)copper(II) complexes (e.g. 64Cu-ATSM) and nitroimidazoles (e.g. 18F-MISO) are classes of tracer used for the delineation of tumor hypoxia by positron emission tomography (PET). Three nitroimidazole-bis(thiosemicarbazonato)copper(II) conjugates were produced in order to investigate their potential as combination hypoxia imaging agents. Two were derived from the known bifunctional bis(thiosemicarbazone) H2ATSM/A and the third from the new precursor diacetyl-2-(4-N-methyl-3-thiosemicarbazone)-3-(4-N-ethylamino-3-thiosemicarbazone) - H2ATSM/en. Oxygen-dependent uptake studies were performed using the 64Cu radiolabelled complexes in EMT6 carcinoma cells. All the complexes displayed appreciable hypoxia selectivity, with the nitroimidazole conjugates displaying greater selectivity than a simple propyl derivative used as a control. Participation of the nitroimidazole group in the trapping mechanism is indicated by the increased hypoxic uptake of the 2- vs. the 4-substituted 64Cu-ATSM/A derivatives. The 2-nitroimidazole derivative of 64Cu-ATSM/en demonstrated superior hypoxia selectivity to 64Cu-ATSM over the range of oxygen concentrations tested. Biodistribution of the radiolabelled 2-nitroimidazole conjugates was carried out in EMT6 tumor-bearing mice. The complexes showed significantly different uptake trends in comparison to each other and previously studied Cu-ATSM derivatives. Uptake of the Cu-ATSM/en conjugate in non-target organs was considerably lower than for derivatives based on Cu-ATSM/A.  相似文献   
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Mammalian NOTCH1-4 receptors are all associated with human malignancy, although exact roles remain enigmatic. Here we employ glp-1(ar202), a temperature-sensitive gain-of-function C. elegans NOTCH mutant, to delineate NOTCH-driven tumor responses to radiotherapy. At ≤20°C, glp-1(ar202) is wild-type, whereas at 25°C it forms a germline stem cell⁄progenitor cell tumor reminiscent of human cancer. We identify a NOTCH tumor phenotype in which all tumor cells traffic rapidly to G2⁄M post-irradiation, attempt to repair DNA strand breaks exclusively via homology-driven repair, and when this fails die by mitotic death. Homology-driven repair inactivation is dramatically radiosensitizing. We show that these concepts translate directly to human cancer models.  相似文献   
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