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Squilla mantis hemocyanin is composed of two hexameric subunits but has electron microscopic profiles different from other bis-hexameric hemocyanins, e.g. Astacus and Homarus. We distinguished three different electron microscopic profiles of S. mantis hemocyanin: two sideviews and a topview. These profiles were studied using computer image alignment and correspondence analysis [Van Heel, M. and Frank, J. (1981) Ultramicroscopy 6, 187 - 194]. With the results of this analysis we were able to build a three-dimensional model for the quaternary structure of this hemocyanin. In this model the two hexamers are stacked in such a way that their hexagonal surfaces overlap to about 60% of their width. In the overlap area four subunits are arranged in two different interhexameric pairs, each forming a bridging area between the two hexamers.  相似文献   
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A patient with chronic anemia is presented who radiologically showed prominent rugae of the stomach. Angiography demonstrated an arteriovenous malformation with a large feeding artery and prominent draining veins.  相似文献   
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Conventional therapies for prostate cancer, especially in its androgen-independent form, may result in the survival of small populations of resistant cells with tumor-initiating potential. These “cancer stem cells” are believed to be responsible for cancer relapse, and therapeutic strategies targeting these cells are of great importance. Telomerase is a ribonucleoprotein enzyme responsible for telomere elongation and is activated in the majority of malignancies, including prostate cancer, but is absent in most normal cells. Putative tumor-initiating cells have significant levels of telomerase, indicating that they are an excellent target for telomerase inhibition therapy. In this review, we present some evidence for the hypothesis that conventional therapies (standard chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy) in combination with telomerase inhibitors may result in effective and more durable responses.  相似文献   
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A conceptual model is proposed, describing potential Zostera marina habitats in the Wadden Sea, based on reported data from laboratory, mesocosm and field studies. Controlling factors in the model are dynamics, degree of desiccation, turbidity, nutrients and salinity. A distinction has been made between a higher and a lower zone of potential habitats, each suitable for different morphotypes of Z. marina. The model relates the decline of Z. marina in the Wadden Sea to increased sediment and water dynamics, turbidity, drainage of sediments (resulting in increased degree of desiccation) and total nutrient loads during the twentieth century. The upper and lower delineation of both the higher and the lower zone of potential Z. marina habitats appear to be determined by one or a combination of several of these factors. Environmental changes in one of these factors will therefore influence the borderlines of the zones. The lower zone of Z. marina will be mainly affected by increased turbidity, sediment dynamics, degree of desiccation during low tide and nutrient load. The higher zone will be affected by increases in water and sediment dynamics, desiccation rates and nutrient loads. Potential Z. marina habitats are located above approx. –0.80 m mean sea level (when turbidity remains at the same level as in the early 1990s) in sheltered, undisturbed locations, and preferably where some freshwater influence is present. At locations with a high, near-marine, salinity, the nutrient load has to be low to allow the growth of Z. marina. The sediment should retain enough water during low tide to keep the plants moist. Our results suggest that the return of Z. marina beds within a reasonable time-scale will require not only suitable habitat conditions, but also revegetation measures, as the changes in the environment resulting from the disappearance of Z. marina may impede its recovery, and the natural import of propagules will be unlikely. Furthermore, the lower zone of Z. marina may require a genotype that is no longer found in the Wadden Sea. Received: 26 April 1999 / Received in revised form: 15 October 1999 / Accepted: 16 October 1999  相似文献   
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The alga Analipus japonicus (Harv.) Wynne displays a distinct seasonal pattern in its development in Peter the Great Bay (Sea of Japan). In winter and spring, it occurs only in the form of basal crusts, and vertical axes develop in the summer–autumn period. It reproduces mostly asexually from July to November. Algae with unilocular sporangia occur very seldom, only in June and July.  相似文献   
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