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1.
Since their discovery, matrix vesicles (MVs) containing minerals have received considerable attention for their role in the mineralization of bone, dentin and calcified cartilage. Additionally, MVs' association with collagen fibrils, which serve as the scaffold for calcification in the organic matrix, has been repeatedly highlighted. The primary purpose of the present study was to establish a MVs–mimicking model (PEG-S-ACP/micelle) in vitro for studying the exact mechanism of MVs-mediated extra/intra fibrillar mineralization of collagen in vivo. In this study, high-concentration serine was used to stabilize the amorphous calcium phosphate (S-ACP), which was subsequently mixed with polyethylene glycol (PEG) to form PEG-S-ACP nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were loaded in the polysorbate 80 micelle through a micelle self-assembly process in an aqueous environment. This MVs–mimicking model is referred to as the PEG-S-ACP/micelle model. By adjusting the pH and surface tension of the PEG-S-ACP/micelle, two forms of minerals (crystalline mineral nodules and ACP nanoparticles) were released to achieve the extrafibrillar and intrafibrillar mineralization, respectively. This in vitro mineralization process reproduced the mineral nodules mediating in vivo extrafibrillar mineralization and provided key insights into a possible mechanism of biomineralization by which in vivo intrafibrillar mineralization could be induced by ACP nanoparticles released from MVs. Also, the PEG-S-ACP/micelle model provides a promising methodology to prepare mineralized collagen scaffolds for repairing bone defects in bone tissue engineering.  相似文献   
2.
Testosterone was previously shown to induce an early (less than 1 min) receptor-dependent stimulation of endocytosis, hexose and amino acid transport in mouse kidney cortex (Koenig, H., Goldstone, A. and Lu, C.Y. (1982) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 104, 165-172). Testosterone (10(-8) M) has now been found to stimulate rapidly (less than 30 s) the influx and efflux of 45Ca2+ in cortex slices. Testosterone also decreased mitochondrial 45Ca and augmented soluble 45Ca, indicating a mobilization of intracellular calcium. Incubation of cortex slices in calcium-free medium without or with 2.5 mM EGTA decreased basal endocytosis, hexose and amino acid transport and blocked the hormonal response. 100 microM verapamil blocked the hormonal response without affecting basal transport. The calcium ionophore A23187 rapidly stimulated endocytosis, hexose and amino acid transport. These data indicate that androgenic stimulation of membrane transport functions involves an increased influx of extracellular calcium and a mobilization of intracellular calcium. Increased cytosolic Ca2+ is probably the regulatory signal for these transport processes.  相似文献   
3.
Series of nanoporous carbons are prepared from sunflower seed shell (SSS) by two different strategies and used as electrode material for electrochemical double-layer capacitor (EDLC). The surface area and pore-structure of the nanoporous carbons are characterized intensively using N2 adsorption technique. The results show that the pore-structure of the carbons is closely related to activation temperature and dosage of KOH. Electrochemical measurements show that the carbons made by impregnation-activation process have better capacitive behavior and higher capacitance retention ratio at high drain current than the carbons made by carbonization-activation process, which is due to that there are abundant macroscopic pores and less interior micropore surface in the texture of the former. More importantly, the capacitive performances of these carbons are much better than ordered mesoporous carbons and commercial wood-based active carbon, thus highlighting the success of preparing high performance electrode material for EDLC from SSS.  相似文献   
4.
Lateral membrane heterogeneity, in the form of lipid rafts and microdomains, is currently implicated in cell processes including signal transduction, endocytosis, and cholesterol trafficking. Various biophysical techniques have been used to detect and characterize lateral membrane domains. Among these, Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) has the crucial advantage of being sensitive to domain sizes smaller than 50-100 nm, below the resolution of optical microscopy but, apparently, similar to those of rafts in cell membranes. In the last decade, several formalisms for the analysis of FRET in heterogeneous membrane systems have been derived and applied to the study of microdomains. They are critically described and illustrated here.  相似文献   
5.

Myrtaceae, Lauraceae and Fabaceae are regarded as essential floristic elements of Atlantic forests due to their outstanding species richness, endemism levels, and ecological functions. Nonetheless, Atlantic forests are being subjected to multiple human disturbances that compromise the conservation of their flora. This study, therefore, intended to address whether there exist potential areas for conservation with great richness of tree/shrub species of the aforementioned families in different forest types within the subtropical Atlantic Forest. For this, data collected systematically across?~?23% of the subtropical Brazilian Atlantic Forest were employed. The univariate Local Moran I statistic was used to search for clusters of sample plots with great richness of species of the studied families. Six clusters were found throughout the evergreen rainforest (ERF) and Araucaria forest (AF), and most of them contained more than half of all species of these families observed on the sample plots, besides many others belonging to different families. A cluster of Myrtaceae and a cluster of Lauraceae in the ERF were the only ones that overlapped protected areas. The clusters of Lauraceae in the AF, located in ecotone zones with the ERF, had?~?50% of native forest cover, whereas the clusters of Myrtaceae and Fabaceae had?~?10% of forest cover. Inasmuch as forests in the study area have been heavily exploited, the clusters have relevant conservation value. Protected areas could be expanded or converted into more restrictive conservation categories to enhance the conservation of populations of key elements of the Atlantic Forest. Yet, non-protected areas deserve attention regarding the management of forest resources and conservation-by-use strategies.

  相似文献   
6.
The effects of three aryl acetylenes, 1-ethynylpyrene (EP), 2-ethynylnaphthalene (EN) and 3-ethynylperylene (EPE), upon the metabolism of benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) by microsomes isolated from rat liver were investigated. These aryl acetylenes all inhibited the total metabolism of BaP. Formation of BaP 7,8-dihydrodiol and BaP tetrol products by microsomal preparations from rats that had been pretreated with 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC) were preferentially inhibited. The effects of EP upon the metabolism of BaP 7,8-dihydrodiol by microsomes from rat liver were also studied. This aryl acetylene strongly inhibited the formation of BaP tetrols from BaP 7,8-dihydrodiol by liver microsomes both from untreated rats and from rats pretreated with 3MC, but enhanced the conversion of the BaP dihydrodiol into other metabolites.  相似文献   
7.
Resolving the conflicts between biodiversity conservation and socioeconomic development is a global pursuit for the long-run prospects of the human species. Based on Wenchuan County, a typical county in southwestern China, a group of 20 indicators quantifying regional biodiversity and socioeconomic development was established to classify and evaluate the county area spatially. A fuzzy c-means clustering (FCM) algorithm was used as the classification method. Three indices including BD, DL and DR characterizing the value of biodiversity, the level and rate of socioeconomic development of the delineated regions were formulated. The results indicated that Wenchuan County was optimally classified into 4 types of regions (region I to IV). The area percentages of the regions vary widely from 4.3 to 65.7%. The sequences of the regions on biodiversity, socioeconomic development level, and socioeconomic development rate were, respectively, IV > II > III > I, I > III > II > IV and III >I >II >IV. The spatial strategy on coordinating biodiversity conservation and regional development is to develop mainly from the east(I, II, III) and to conserve mainly in the west(IV). Eco-industry, such as eco-tourism and eco-agriculture, need to be emphasized in the process of regional development. The quantitative methods used here may have a wide applicability.  相似文献   
8.
9.
What determines the rate at which species adapt to new climatic conditions? Weaver et al. found that the evolution of short larval periods promotes climatic niche evolution in salamanders in the genus Desmognathus.  相似文献   
10.
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