首页 | 本学科首页   官方微博 | 高级检索  
文章检索
  按 检索   检索词:      
出版年份:   被引次数:   他引次数: 提示:输入*表示无穷大
  收费全文   33877篇
  免费   3059篇
  国内免费   2460篇
  2024年   68篇
  2023年   370篇
  2022年   803篇
  2021年   1320篇
  2020年   962篇
  2019年   1180篇
  2018年   1158篇
  2017年   796篇
  2016年   1194篇
  2015年   2021篇
  2014年   2249篇
  2013年   2494篇
  2012年   3038篇
  2011年   2833篇
  2010年   1692篇
  2009年   1505篇
  2008年   1833篇
  2007年   1645篇
  2006年   1506篇
  2005年   1239篇
  2004年   1157篇
  2003年   986篇
  2002年   892篇
  2001年   720篇
  2000年   657篇
  1999年   586篇
  1998年   326篇
  1997年   314篇
  1996年   297篇
  1995年   248篇
  1994年   265篇
  1993年   180篇
  1992年   320篇
  1991年   295篇
  1990年   246篇
  1989年   229篇
  1988年   192篇
  1987年   156篇
  1986年   146篇
  1985年   151篇
  1984年   142篇
  1983年   103篇
  1982年   90篇
  1980年   59篇
  1979年   75篇
  1978年   69篇
  1977年   58篇
  1976年   67篇
  1975年   63篇
  1974年   75篇
排序方式: 共有10000条查询结果,搜索用时 15 毫秒
1.
2.
Objective: Pleural effusion is common problem, but the rapid and reliable diagnosis for specific pathogenic effusions are lacking. This study aimed to identify the diagnosis based on clinical variables to differentiate pleural tuberculous exudates from other pleural effusions. We also investigated the role of renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs) in the pathogenesis of pleural exudates.Experimental design: The major components in RAS and extracellular matrix metabolism, including angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), ACE2, MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities, were measured and compared in the patients with transudative (n = 45) and exudative (n = 80) effusions. The exudative effusions were come from the patients with tuberculosis (n = 20), pneumonia (n = 32), and adenocarcinoma (n = 28).Results: Increased ACE and equivalent ACE2 activities, resulting in a significantly increased ACE/ACE2 ratio in exudates, were detected compared to these values in transudates. MMP-9 activity in exudates was significantly higher than that in transudates. The significant correlation between ACE and ACE2 activity that was found in transudates was not found in exudates. Advanced analyses showed significantly increased ACE and MMP-9 activities, and decreased ACE2 activity in tuberculous pleural effusions compared with those in pneumonia and adenocarcinoma effusions. The results indicate that increased ACE and MMP-9 activities found in the exudates were mainly contributed from a higher level of both enzyme activities in the tuberculous pleural effusions.Conclusion: Interplay between ACE and ACE2, essential functions in the RAS, and abnormal regulation of MMP-9 probably play a pivotal role in the development of exudative effusions. Moreover, the ACE/ACE2 ratio combined with MMP-9 activity in pleural fluid may be potential biomarkers for diagnosing tuberculous pleurisy.  相似文献   
3.
Since their discovery, matrix vesicles (MVs) containing minerals have received considerable attention for their role in the mineralization of bone, dentin and calcified cartilage. Additionally, MVs' association with collagen fibrils, which serve as the scaffold for calcification in the organic matrix, has been repeatedly highlighted. The primary purpose of the present study was to establish a MVs–mimicking model (PEG-S-ACP/micelle) in vitro for studying the exact mechanism of MVs-mediated extra/intra fibrillar mineralization of collagen in vivo. In this study, high-concentration serine was used to stabilize the amorphous calcium phosphate (S-ACP), which was subsequently mixed with polyethylene glycol (PEG) to form PEG-S-ACP nanoparticles. The nanoparticles were loaded in the polysorbate 80 micelle through a micelle self-assembly process in an aqueous environment. This MVs–mimicking model is referred to as the PEG-S-ACP/micelle model. By adjusting the pH and surface tension of the PEG-S-ACP/micelle, two forms of minerals (crystalline mineral nodules and ACP nanoparticles) were released to achieve the extrafibrillar and intrafibrillar mineralization, respectively. This in vitro mineralization process reproduced the mineral nodules mediating in vivo extrafibrillar mineralization and provided key insights into a possible mechanism of biomineralization by which in vivo intrafibrillar mineralization could be induced by ACP nanoparticles released from MVs. Also, the PEG-S-ACP/micelle model provides a promising methodology to prepare mineralized collagen scaffolds for repairing bone defects in bone tissue engineering.  相似文献   
4.
5.
Additive hazards regression for case-cohort studies   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3  
Kulich  M; Lin  DY 《Biometrika》2000,87(1):73-87
  相似文献   
6.
7.
It has been demonstrated that caleosin alone is sufficient to stabilize artificial oil bodies. A series of recombinant caleosins, mutated with 3, 5, 8, 11, 13, 15, and 17 extra Lys residues and over‐expressed in Escherichia coli, were used as carrier proteins to render biotin as a hapten on the surface of artificial oil bodies for antibody production. Biotinylation levels of the recombinant caleosins were step‐wisely elevated as the number of extra Lys residues increased, and the biotinylated Lys residues were identified by mass spectrometric analysis. Polyclonal antibodies against biotin were successfully generated in rats injected with artificial oil bodies constituted with each of the biotinylated caleosins. Moreover, those generated via the biotinylated caleosins with eight or more extra Lys residues no longer recognized caleosin. It appears that engineered Lys‐rich caleosins are suitable carrier proteins for the production of antibodies against small molecules. © 2011 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2011  相似文献   
8.
Metabolism is recognized as an important driver of cancer progression and other complex diseases, but global metabolite profiling remains a challenge. Protein expression profiling is often a poor proxy since existing pathway enrichment models provide an incomplete mapping between the proteome and metabolism. To overcome these gaps, we introduce multiomic metabolic enrichment network analysis (MOMENTA), an integrative multiomic data analysis framework for more accurately deducing metabolic pathway changes from proteomics data alone in a gene set analysis context by leveraging protein interaction networks to extend annotated metabolic models. We apply MOMENTA to proteomic data from diverse cancer cell lines and human tumors to demonstrate its utility at revealing variation in metabolic pathway activity across cancer types, which we verify using independent metabolomics measurements. The novel metabolic networks we uncover in breast cancer and other tumors are linked to clinical outcomes, underscoring the pathophysiological relevance of the findings.  相似文献   
9.
10.
Conantokin-T (con-T) and conantokin-G (con-G) are two highly homologous peptide toxins found in Conus venom. The former is a 21-residue peptide with four gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) residues (at positions 3, 4, 10 and 14), while the latter is a 17-residue peptide with five gamma-carboxyglutamic acid residues (at positions 3, 4, 7, 10 and 14). Despite the apparent similarity in number and relative positions of the gamma-carboxyglutamic acid residues, (113)Cd-NMR studies indicated a distinct metal binding behavior for con-G and con-T. There appears to be four binding sites in con-G in contrast to one metal binding site in con-T. To elucidate the mode of calcium binding by the gamma-carboxyglutamic acid residues in these conantokins, we designed various analogous peptides with their gamma-carboxyglutamic acid replaced by other amino acid residues. (113)Cd-NMR experiments on conantokin analogues reveal that the major difference in the number of metal binding sites between con-G and con-T is due to the residue at position 7. We also performed molecular simulations to calculate the relative binding free energies of several potential binding sites. Based on our theoretical and experimental results, we propose a 'four-site' binding model for conantokin-G and a 'single-site' binding model for conantokin-T.  相似文献   
设为首页 | 免责声明 | 关于勤云 | 加入收藏

Copyright©北京勤云科技发展有限公司  京ICP备09084417号