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1.
From three Fouquieria sp. 12 iridoid glucosides were isolated and identified. Eight of these were structurally related to galioside (monotropein methylester), while four were hydroxy substitution products of deoxyloganin. In three cases the glucoside occurred together with the corresponding 10-O-acetate.  相似文献   
2.
S P Sutton  R Dam  M K Nielsen 《Life sciences》1974,15(12):2097-2108
Levels of 7.8, 18.5 and 26 mole % deuterium oxide were administered sequentially to Coturnix japonica (Japanese quail) via the drinking water. The primary effect observed was on egg frequency, which decreased from a normal level of 0.89 for 7.8 mole % D2O to a low of 0.38 during the administration of 26 mole % D2O. Adverse symptoms, such as hyperexcitability, convulsions, skin ulcerations, comatosity, weight loss, or death, which have been associated with deuterium toxicity in other animals, were not observed in these experiments. The amount of deuterium deposited in the water of the egg was 6.9, 13.98, and 19.83 mole % when 7.8, 18.5 and 26 mole % deuterium respectively was administered. For each period, the deuterium content of egg water rapidly reached a maximum concentration after which the concentration decreased slightly. This dilution effect has not been noted previously in body fluids from other animals.  相似文献   
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The relationship between overnight postabsorptive (fasting) respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and plasma FFA concentrations was addressed using data from three separate protocols, each of which involved careful control of the antecedent diet. Protocol 1 examined the relationship between fasting RER and the previous daytime RER. In Protocol 2 fasting, RER and plasma palmitate concentrations were measured in 29 women and 31 men (body mass index <30 kg·m−2). Protocol 3 analyzed data from Nielsen et al. (Nielsen, S., Z. K. Guo, J. B. Albu, S. Klein, P. C. O''Brien, M. D. Jensen. 2003. Energy expenditure, sex and endogenous fuel availability in humans. J. Clin. Invest. 111: 981-988.) to understand how fasting RER and palmitate concentrations relate within individuals during four consecutive measurements. The results were as follows: 1) Fasting RER was correlated (r = 0.74, P < 0.001) with the previous day''s average RER, and less so with RER variability. 2) Fasting RER was correlated (r = −0.39, P = 0.007) with fasting plasma palmitate concentrations. 3) The pattern of the RER/palmitate relationship was similar within individuals and between individuals; a negative slope was observed significantly more often than a positive slope (χ2 test; P < 0.001). Our findings suggest that, despite a fixed food quotient, the slight departures from energy equilibrium in a controlled General Clinical Research Center environment can effect plasma FFA concentrations. We suggest that including indirect calorimetry as part of FFA metabolism studies may aid in data interpretation.  相似文献   
5.
Birds often lose feathers during predation attempts, and thisability has evolved as a means of escape. Because predatorsare more likely to grab feathers on the rump and the back thanon the ventral side of an escaping bird, we predicted that theformer feathers would have evolved to be relatively looselyattached as an antipredator strategy in species that frequentlydie from predation. We estimated the force required to removefeathers from the rump, back, and breast by pulling featherswith a spring balance from a range of European bird speciesin an attempt to investigate ecological factors associated withease of feather loss during predation attempts. The force requiredto loosen a feather from the rump was less than that requiredto loosen a feather from back, which in turn was less than thatrequired to loosen a feather from the breast. The relative forceneeded to loosen rump feathers compared with feathers from theback and the breast was smaller for prey species preferred bythe most common predator of small passerine birds, the sparrowhawkAccipiter nisus. Likewise, the relative force was also smallerin species with a high frequency of complete tail loss amongfree-living birds, which we used as an index of the frequencyof failed predation attempts. The relative force required toremove feathers from the rump was smaller in species with ahigh frequency of fear screams, another measure of the relativeimportance of predation as a cause of death. Feather loss requiredparticularly little force among solitarily breeding bird speciesthat suffer the highest degree of predation. Antipredator defensein terms of force required to remove feathers from the rumpwas larger in species with a strong antiparasite defense interms of T-cell–mediated immune response. These findingsare consistent with the hypothesis that different defenses areantagonistic and that they are traded off against each other.  相似文献   
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Frankia is the diverse bacterial genus that fixes nitrogen within root nodules of actinorhizal trees and shrubs. Systematic and ecological studies of Frankia have been hindered by the lack of morphological, biochemical, or other markers to readily distinguish strains. Recently, nucleotide sequence of 16 S RNA from the small ribosomal subunit has been used to classify and identify a variety of microorganisms. We report nucleotide sequences from portions of the 16 S ribosomal RNA from Frankia strains AcnI1 isolated from Alnus viridis ssp. crispa (Ait.) Turrill and PtI1 isolated from Purshia tridentata (Pursh) DC. The number of nucleotide base substitutions and gaps we find more than doubles the previously reported sequence diversity for the same variable regions within other strains of Frankia.  相似文献   
8.
The occurrence of bikunin and ·1-microglobuli n was investigated in human ovary and Fallopian tubes. Bikunin and ·1-microglobulin are transcribed in the liver from a common gene. Bikunin immunoreactivity was detected in the zona pellucida. A positive reaction for bikunin was also observed in connective tissue of the oviduct. In addition, mast cells showed a more intense posi tive reaction than the surrounding connective tissue. Specific displaceable ·1-microglobulin immunoreactivity was revealed in the zona pellucida. The data suggest that bikunin and ·1- microglobulin are trapped in the zona pellucida. This revised version was published online in November 2006 with corrections to the Cover Date.  相似文献   
9.
The mutagenic activity of N,N-dimethyl-, N,N-diethyl-, N,N-dibutyl-, N,N-diisobutyl-, N,N-di(p-tolyl)-, N-ethyl-N-phenyl-, N,N-dibenzyl-, N,N-diphenyl- and N,N-diisopropylhydrazine was examined in the Salmonella/mammalian microsome assay using the strains TA1535, TA1537, TA97, TA98, TA100, TA102 and TA1530. All nine hydrazines were mutagenic in at least one tester strain, although of borderline significance for some of the compounds. The mutagenic potencies of the hydrazines varied 2-3 orders of magnitude, from very weak to moderate mutagenic activity. In general, the addition of S9 resulted in a lowering of the mutagenic activity and a lowering of the toxic properties of the hydrazines. The test results were relatively difficult to evaluate due to toxic effects of many of the test compounds on the test bacteria which may have resulted in an underestimation of the mutagenic potencies of some of the compounds. The pattern of mutagenic activity of the hydrazines in the different tester strains indicates that more than one mechanism of action may be involved in the mutagenicity.  相似文献   
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