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1.
  1. Fishing is a strong selective force and is supposed to select for earlier maturation at smaller body size. However, the extent to which fishing‐induced evolution is shaping ecosystems remains debated. This is in part because it is challenging to disentangle fishing from other selective forces (e.g., size‐structured predation and cannibalism) in complex ecosystems undergoing rapid change.
  2. Changes in maturation size from fishing and predation have previously been explored with multi‐species physiologically structured models but assumed separation of ecological and evolutionary timescales. To assess the eco‐evolutionary impact of fishing and predation at the same timescale, we developed a stochastic physiologically size‐structured food‐web model, where new phenotypes are introduced randomly through time enabling dynamic simulation of species'' relative maturation sizes under different types of selection pressures.
  3. Using the model, we carried out a fully factorial in silico experiment to assess how maturation size would change in the absence and presence of both fishing and predation (including cannibalism). We carried out ten replicate stochastic simulations exposed to all combinations of fishing and predation in a model community of nine interacting fish species ranging in their maximum sizes from 10 g to 100 kg. We visualized and statistically analyzed the results using linear models.
  4. The effects of fishing on maturation size depended on whether or not predation was enabled and differed substantially across species. Fishing consistently reduced the maturation sizes of two largest species whether or not predation was enabled and this decrease was seen even at low fishing intensities (F = 0.2 per year). In contrast, the maturation sizes of the three smallest species evolved to become smaller through time but this happened regardless of the levels of predation or fishing. For the four medium‐size species, the effect of fishing was highly variable with more species showing significant and larger fishing effects in the presence of predation.
  5. Ultimately our results suggest that the interactive effects of predation and fishing can have marked effects on species'' maturation sizes, but that, at least for the largest species, predation does not counterbalance the evolutionary effect of fishing. Our model also produced relative maturation sizes that are broadly consistent with empirical estimates for many fish species.
  相似文献   
2.
Mild periodate oxidation of certain commercially available crosslinked agarose beads (Sepharose CL-4B and CL-6B) results in the generation of aldehydo groups which were useful for immobilization of amino compounds by reductive amination using pyridine borane. Consumption of periodate ion and production of formaldehyde were only observed with crosslinked Sepharose preparations and were correlated with a binding capacity much greater than that of uncross-linked gels when subjected to the reductive amination reaction. Up to 50 mg (approximately 0.73 mumol) of bovine serum albumin and 30 mumol of glycylglycine were coupled per gram of moist oxidized Sepharose CL-6B. The immobilization reaction was shown to proceed at neutral pH requiring about 12 h for completion and to be relatively insensitive to temperature and pyridine borane concentration. The oxidized gel was shown to be stable for at least 2 months upon storage in 0.1 M acetic acid. This method has proven to be useful for the preparation of a variety of affinity matrices and immobilized enzymes.  相似文献   
3.
Martina Ferraguti  Sergio Magallanes  Jéssica Jiménez-Peñuela  Josué Martínez-de la Puente  Luz Garcia-Longoria  Jordi Figuerola  Jaime Muriel  Tamer Albayrak  Staffan Bensch  Camille Bonneaud  Rohan H. Clarke  Gábor Á. Czirják  Dimitar Dimitrov  Kathya Espinoza  John G. Ewen  Farah Ishtiaq  Wendy Flores-Saavedra  László Zsolt Garamszegi  Olof Hellgren  Dita Horakova  Kathryn P. Huyvaert  Henrik Jensen  Asta Križanauskienė  Marcos R. Lima  Charlene Lujan-Vega  Eyðfinn Magnussen  Lynn B. Martin  Kevin D. Matson  Anders Pape Møller  Pavel Munclinger  Vaidas Palinauskas  Péter L. Pap  Javier Pérez-Tris  Swen C. Renner  Robert Ricklefs  Sergio Scebba  Ravinder N. M. Sehgal  Manuel Soler  Eszter Szöllősi  Gediminas Valkiūnas  Helena Westerdahl  Pavel Zehtindjiev  Alfonso Marzal 《Global Ecology and Biogeography》2023,32(5):809-823

Aim

The increasing spread of vector-borne diseases has resulted in severe health concerns for humans, domestic animals and wildlife, with changes in land use and the introduction of invasive species being among the main possible causes for this increase. We explored several ecological drivers potentially affecting the local prevalence and richness of avian malaria parasite lineages in native and introduced house sparrows (Passer domesticus) populations.

Location

Global.

Time period

2002–2019.

Major taxa studied

Avian Plasmodium parasites in house sparrows.

Methods

We analysed data from 2,220 samples from 69 localities across all continents, except Antarctica. The influence of environment (urbanization index and human density), geography (altitude, latitude, hemisphere) and time (bird breeding season and years since introduction) were analysed using generalized additive mixed models (GAMMs) and random forests.

Results

Overall, 670 sparrows (30.2%) were infected with 22 Plasmodium lineages. In native populations, parasite prevalence was positively related to urbanization index, with the highest prevalence values in areas with intermediate urbanization levels. Likewise, in introduced populations, prevalence was positively associated with urbanization index; however, higher infection occurred in areas with either extreme high or low levels of urbanization. In introduced populations, the number of parasite lineages increased with altitude and with the years elapsed since the establishment of sparrows in a new locality. Here, after a decline in the number of parasite lineages in the first 30 years, an increase from 40 years onwards was detected.

Main conclusions

Urbanization was related to parasite prevalence in both native and introduced bird populations. In invaded areas, altitude and time since bird introduction were related to the number of Plasmodium lineages found to be infecting sparrows.  相似文献   
4.
Genome-wide association studies (GWASs) have identified several, mainly co-dominantly acting, single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). We searched for recessively acting disease loci by performing an analysis of runs of homozygosity (ROH) based on windows of homozygous SNP-blocks and by calculating genomic inbreeding coefficients on a SNP-wise basis. We used data from a previous GWAS with 906 cases and 1217 controls from a population with a long history of no matings between relatives. Ten recurrent ROHs were identified among 25 055 ROHs across all individuals but their association with HL was not genome-wide significant. All recurrent ROHs showed significant evidence for natural selection. As a novel finding genomic inbreeding among cases was significantly higher than among controls (P = 2.11*10−14) even after correcting for covariates. Higher inbreeding among the cases was mainly based on a group of individuals with a higher average length of ROHs per person. This result suggests a correlation of higher levels of inbreeding with higher cancer incidence and might reflect the existence of recessive alleles causing HL. Genomic inbreeding may result in a higher expression of deleterious recessive genes within a population.  相似文献   
5.
The Northeast Atlantic mackerel (Scomber scombrus) has been extending its summer feeding distribution north and west, including around Iceland, since around 2006. The objective of this study is to quantify the weight gain and total food consumption of mackerel and to evaluate the food competition between mackerel and herring (Clupea harengus) feeding in the marine ecosystem around Iceland during the summers 2009–2011. Mackerel feeding in Icelandic waters gained around 43% on average in weight during these summers. Based on swept-area abundance estimates of mackerel from an international survey in 2011 and available estimates of food conversion efficiency in mackerel, the weight gain in Icelandic waters in 2011 corresponded to a total consumption of around 3.4 (2.4?4.5) million tonnes. Overall, 98% of 2314 mackerel, 91% of 398 Icelandic summer-spawning herring and 96% of 424 Norwegian spring-spawning herring stomachs, collected over the summers 2009?2011, contained food. The mean weight of the stomach content of mackerel was higher than for herring in all the years. While the stomach content weight of mackerel was generally highest in southeastern and southwestern areas, it was highest for herring in western, eastern and northern areas. Analysis of stomach contents showed that Copepoda were the most important food of mackerel in most areas, while Copepoda and Euphausiacea were the most important food items for herring. Fish prey contributed a higher proportion in stomachs of mackerel than herring, although relatively low for both species.  相似文献   
6.
The main aim of our study was to investigate seasonal variation in the frequency of abnormal anaphases and mitotic index values in wild populations of herb-Paris (Paris quadrifolia L., Trilliaceae). Plant material was collected in the year 2000 in Norway and in the year 2001 in Lithuania. There was statistically significant variation in the mitotic index values (chi(2)=1087.9, d.f.=16, P<0.0001) with the highest values during the active growth period in May and the lowest values at the end of vegetation period in September. Seasonal variation in the frequency of abnormal anaphases was statistically significant as well (chi(2)=28.23, d.f.=16, P=0.0297). The most frequent type of anaphase abnormality was vagrant chromosomes (64.2%) followed by bridges (28.6%), fragments (3.6%), sticky chromosomes (2.4%) and multipolar anaphases (1.2%). During the fieldwork, quite deep late frosts occurred. Mitotic index was lower in the plants collected immediately after the frosts or 1 week later than in the plants sampled before the frosts (52+/-13 and 123+/-15, respectively, P=0.0014). On the contrary, frequency of abnormal anaphases was statistically significantly elevated (P=0.0082) in plants after the frosts (6.35+/-1.54%) when compared to plants before the frosts (2.49+/-0.56%). Our results clearly indicated significant variation in the mitotic index values and frequency of abnormal anaphases in the wild populations of herb-Paris during the growth season. This variation may be related to the physiological conditions of the analysed plants as well as to certain ecological factors.  相似文献   
7.
8.
5-Methyltetrahydrofolate (5MTHF) is the main form of folate in human plasma, and an important vitamin for human health. Photodegradation of folates may have played a role in the development of different human skin colours. 5MTHF can be degraded directly by exposure to ultraviolet radiation or by exposure to visible light in the presence of endogenous sensitizers like riboflavin (RF). These photochemical reactions were studied by absorption spectroscopy. While 5MTHF is stable under UV and visible light exposure in pure aqueous media, it is quickly degraded in the presence of RF during UVA and blue light exposure. The degradation of 5MTHF is dependent on the concentration of RF, but not on the concentration of 5MTHF itself. UVA and blue light gave similar reactions. Further investigations are necessary to evaluate the consequences of large light exposures in vivo in humans. Our findings should be taken into the ongoing discussion about the development of human skin colours. Due to the presence of RF in human blood, folate can be significantly degraded during prolonged or intense blue light exposure. Thus, a dark skin colour may be favourable for prevention of folate degradation under high solar fluence rates, such as in equatorial areas.  相似文献   
9.
We sought to establish whether the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) regulates the activity of amiloride-sensitive sodium channels (ENaC) in alveolar epithelial cells of wild-type, heterozygous (Cftr(+/-)), knockout (Cftr(-/-)), and ΔF508-expressing mice in situ. RT-PCR studies confirmed the presence of CFTR message in freshly isolated alveolar type II (ATII) cells from wild-type mice. We patched alveolar type I (ATI) and ATII cells in freshly prepared lung slices from these mice and demonstrated the presence of 4-pS ENaC channels with the following basal open probabilities (P(o)): wild-type=0.21 ± 0.015: Cftr(+/-)=0.4 ± 0.03; ΔF508=0.55 ± 0.01; and Cftr(-/-)=and 0.81 ± 0.016 (means ± SE; n ≥ 9). Forskolin (5 μM) or trypsin (2 μM), applied in the pipette solution, increased the P(o) and number of channels in ATII cells of wild-type, Cftr(+/-), and ΔF508, but not in Cftr(-/-) mice, suggesting that the latter were maximally activated. Western blot analysis showed that lungs of all groups of mice had similar levels of α-ENaC; however, lungs of Cftr(+/-) and Cftr(-/-) mice had significantly higher levels of an α-ENaC proteolytic fragment (65 kDa) that is associated with active ENaC channels. Our results indicate that ENaC activity is inversely correlated to predicted CFTR levels and that CFTR heterozygous and homozygous mice have higher levels of proteolytically processed ENaC fragments in their lungs. This is the first demonstration of functional ENaC-CFTR interactions in alveolar epithelial cells in situ.  相似文献   
10.
Molecular sensing in the lingual mucosa and in the gastro-intestinal tract play a role in the detection of ingested harmful drugs and toxins. Therefore, genetic polymorphisms affecting the capability of initiating these responses may be critical for the subsequent efficiency of avoiding and/or eliminating possible threats to the organism. By using a tagging approach in the region of Taste Receptor 2R38 (TAS2R38) gene, we investigated all the common genetic variation of this gene region in relation to colorectal cancer risk with a case-control study in a German population (709 controls and 602 cases) and in a Czech population (623 controls and 601 cases). We found that there were no significant associations between individual SNPs of the TAS2R38 gene and colorectal cancer in the Czech or in the German population, nor in the joint analysis. However, when we analyzed the diplotypes and the phenotypes we found that the non-taster group had an increased risk of colorectal cancer in comparison to the taster group. This association was borderline significant in the Czech population, (OR = 1.28, 95% CI 0.99–1.67; Pvalue = 0.058) and statistically significant in the German population (OR = 1.36, 95% CI 1.06–1.75; Pvalue = 0.016) and in the joint analysis (OR = 1.34, 95% CI 1.12–1.61; Pvalue = 0.001). In conclusion, we found a suggestive association between the human bitter tasting phenotype and the risk of CRC in two different populations of Caucasian origin.  相似文献   
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