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黄土丘陵小流域土壤侵蚀的时空变异及其影响因子   总被引:13,自引:0,他引:13       下载免费PDF全文
邱扬  傅伯杰  王军  陈利顶 《生态学报》2004,24(9):1871-1877
采用土壤侵蚀模型LISEM(Limburg Soil Erosion Model)模拟黄土丘陵沟壑区大南沟小流域5种土地利用格局下立地尺度上土壤侵蚀量的空间分布,从土壤侵蚀量与环境因子的关系分析入手,研究黄土丘陵小流域立地尺度上土壤侵蚀的时空变异性及其影响因子.研究结果表明,立地尺度上平均土壤侵蚀强度以1975年>1998年>退耕格局,可见优化土地利用格局(陡坡农地退耕)可以有效地降低立地尺度上的土壤侵蚀强度.各种土地利用方案下土壤侵蚀强度的空间变异都很显著,相对来说以1975年<1998年<退耕格局,可见优化土地利用格局可以提高土壤侵蚀的空间变异性,降低土壤侵蚀危险的空间聚集度.土壤侵蚀量与降雨呈现显著正相关性,相关性以LU75>LU98>退耕格局,可见合理的土地利用格局可以有效地削弱降雨对土壤侵蚀强度的影响.土地利用方式对土壤侵蚀空间分布具有显著影响.从1975年、1998年到3种退耕格局,陡坡农地退耕还林还草,植被覆盖度增加,林地/灌木地、果园/经济林地、农地和休闲地的平均土壤侵蚀强度都逐渐降低.相关分析表明,林地/灌木地上土壤侵蚀量最小,荒草地相对最严重;果园、休闲地和农地居中.土壤侵蚀强度还存在显著的地形分异.水平凹凸度和相对海拔对土壤侵蚀空间分布的影响比较显著,而坡向、坡度和垂直凹凸度的影响较小.土壤侵蚀强度以水平凸坡大于水平凹坡、垂直凹坡略大于垂直凸坡、偏南坡大于偏北坡、低海拔大于高海拔.对1975年和1998年土地利用格局来说,土壤侵蚀强度以偏西坡大于偏东坡、陡坡大于缓坡;对3种退耕格局而言则正相反.可见,优化土地利用格局(陡坡农地退耕),可以有效地削弱甚至逆转地形对土壤侵蚀强度的影响.  相似文献
吕一河  胡健  孙飞翔  张立伟 《生态学报》2015,35(15):5191-5196
水与生态系统的关系是重要的科学问题,并且受到社会广泛关注。水源涵养和水文调节都是陆地生态系统所能提供的水文服务,并从生态水文和水资源角度把生态系统的健康和完整性与人类社会的持续发展紧密联系起来,从而也要求动态和综合的视角加以深入研究。基于生态水文过程原理,对水源涵养和水文调节的概念进行了辨析,认为前者是后者的有机组成部分,相对具体、应用中务求精确明晰;后者则更具包容性、客观性和广泛适用性。文章进一步简要分析了当前国内外生态系统水源涵养和水文调节服务的主导评估方法,结果表明,水源涵养的评估以储水量法为主,而水文调节则以基于降水和蒸散的水量平衡法及综合模型法(如SWAT)为主。从生态系统服务相互作用的角度考量,实际上水源涵养和水文调节及其相关的其它服务类型(如固碳、土壤保持、生物生产、淡水供给等)存在着复杂的动态权衡或协同关系,在科学研究和生态系统管理实践中必须统筹考虑,以确保对科学问题的准确把握和促进"水-生态-社会系统"的高效、可持续发展。为此,必须加强对生态水文过程的长期观测和实验研究,并且关注空间异质性及尺度效应、时间动态性和利益相关者需求的多维性。  相似文献
付晓青  李勇 《生态学杂志》2012,31(3):724-730
采用水培试验方法,以2个耐旱性不同的小麦品种(敏感型望水白和耐旱型洛旱7号)为材料,研究了干旱胁迫对小麦幼苗根系形态、生理特性以及叶片光合作用的影响,以期揭示小麦幼苗对干旱胁迫的适应机制.结果表明: 干旱胁迫下,2个小麦品种幼苗的根系活力显著增大,而根数和根系表面积受到抑制;干旱胁迫降低了望水白的叶片相对含水量,提高了束缚水/自由水,而对洛旱7号无显著影响;干旱胁迫降低了2个小麦品种叶片的叶绿素含量、净光合速率、蒸腾速率、气孔导度和胞间CO2浓度,但随胁迫时间的延长,洛旱7号的叶绿素含量和净光合速率与对照差异不显著;干旱胁迫降低了2个小麦品种幼苗的单株叶面积,以及望水白的根系、地上部和植株生物量,而对洛旱7号无显著影响.水分胁迫下,耐旱型品种可以通过提高根系活力、保持较高的根系生长量来补偿根系吸收面积的下降,保持较高的根系吸水能力,进而维持较高的光合面积和光合速率,缓解干旱对生长的抑制.  相似文献
Summary We present a mathematical model for predicting the expected fitness of phenotypically plastic organisms experiencing a variable environment. We assume that individuals experience two discrete environments probabilistically in time (as a Markov process) and that there are two different phenotypic states, each yielding the highest fitness in one of the two environments. We compare the expected fitness of a phenotypically fixed individual to that of an individual whose phenotype is induced to produce the better phenotype in each environment with a time lag between experiencing a new environment and realization of the new phenotype. Such time lags are common in organisms where phenotypically plastic, inducible traits have been documented. We find that although plasticity is generally adaptive when time lags are short (relative to the time scale of environmental variability), plasticity can be disadvantageous for longer lag times. Asymmetries in environmental change probabilities and/or the relative fitnesses of each phenotype strongly influence whether plasticity is favoured. In contrast to other models, our model does not require costs for plasticity to be disadvantageous; costs affect the results quantitatively, not qualitatively.  相似文献
Spatiotemporal variation in survival may be an important driver of multi‐population dynamics in many wild animal species, yet few scientific studies have addressed this issue, primarily due to a lack of sufficiently comprehensive and detailed datasets. Synchrony in survival rates among different, often distant, subpopulations appears to be common, caused by spatially correlated environmental conditions or by movement of animals from different sites such that their ranges overlap. Many seabird populations are effectively isolated during the breeding season because colonies are widely separated, but over the winter, birds disperse widely and there may be much mixing between different populations. The non‐breeding season is also the period of main mortality for seabirds. Using mark–recapture and ring‐recovery data, we tested for spatial, temporal and age‐related correlations in survival of Common Guillemots Uria aalge among three widely separated Scottish colonies that have varying overlap in their overwintering distributions. Survival was highly correlated over time for colonies/age‐classes sharing wintering areas and, except in 2004, was essentially uncorrelated for those with separate wintering areas. These results strongly suggest that one or more aspects of the winter environment are responsible for spatiotemporal variation in survival of British Guillemots, and provide insight into the factors driving large‐scale population dynamics of the species.  相似文献
Demographic parameters of nonhuman primates, like those of all other organisms, vary over time and space. However, many contemporary models comparing multiple species treat these parameters as if they were static. Population density, group size, age-sex composition, natality, and juvenile recruitment all vary considerably within populations that researchers have studied for many years. It is important to describe and to understand the variance not only for the development of more realistic models but also to clarify the status and trends of the populations in order to develop effective conservation management plans. A critical issue is to distinguish real demographic trends from the natural demographic variation that occurs both between sites and within specific sites over time. With few exceptions, demographic data for most nonhuman primates are not amenable to life-table analyses because observation conditions typically prevent collection of the data required and generation time is long. Instead, one must evaluate demographic indices that serve as surrogates for more detailed and accurate data, such as that derived from life-time observations of recognizable individuals of known parentage. Long-term monitoring is essential to understand the extent of and trends in demographic variation. These points are exemplified with case studies from vervets, red howlers, and red colobus as they relate to the likely causal factors of habitat quality, disease, predator-prey imbalance, population compression, and intragroup competition for food.  相似文献
为揭示黄土高寒区人工林土壤水分的时空变化特征,基于2018年植被生长期一处典型人工植被恢复坡面0-200cm剖面土壤含水率连续动态数据,运用经典统计和时间稳定性分析,研究不同深度土壤含水率的时空变异性和时间稳定性。结果表明:在测定时段内,剖面各土层深度土壤含水率无显著差别,在空间上均表现为中等变异性,呈现随土层深度的增加而增大的趋势,在时间上表层表现为中等变异性,其余各层均表现为弱变异性,深层土壤水分的时间变异性小于浅层;随着测定时间变化,试验地0-200cm土壤含水率Spearman秩相关系数均达到0.8以上,且呈极显著相关,表现出一定的时间稳定性特征;土壤含水率的时间稳定性随土层深度的增加而增强,具有深度依赖性;基于相对差分分析可以选择代表性测点监测区域平均土壤含水率(决定系数R2为0.7138-0.8605),以期为合理布设土壤水分监测点提供理论依据,对于植被恢复与生态重建模式的选择具有指导意义。  相似文献
  1. Seasonal variation in river water levels creates a shifting mosaic of habitat conditions associated with variables such as water temperature, chemistry and prey availability to consumers. Previous work has shown that fishes can exploit spatial variation in water temperature, but less is known about how they respond to shifts in the spatial arrangement of habitat conditions through time.
  2. Juvenile coho salmon (Oncorhynchus kisutch) are the numerically dominant fish species in many southwest Alaskan streams, which exhibit seasonal variation in water level and temperature due to changes in precipitation and snowmelt. We assessed the degree to which juvenile coho salmon exploit the associated shifting mosaic of water temperature by monitoring the spatial distribution of water temperatures and juvenile coho salmon in the lake‐influenced reaches of a southwest Alaskan stream. We also monitored the diets of juvenile coho salmon relative to the spatial distribution of prey taxa.
  3. Juvenile coho salmon exhibited two scales of movement to track spatiotemporal variation in habitat conditions. First, over the course of 6 weeks, individuals moved among off‐channel units, tracking shifts in the location of warm water habitat caused by receding water level. Second, individuals moved at diel time scales, foraging on benthic macroinvertebrates in the cold thalweg of the stream at night and then digesting prey in warmer off‐channel habitats during the day.
  4. Seasonally asynchronous variation in water temperature among off‐channel habitat units produced portfolio effects in habitat conditions, such that coho salmon had continual access to warm habitat for digestion despite its ephemeral availability at discrete locations.
  5. Our study demonstrates that behavioural thermoregulation by juvenile fishes can be important throughout the growing season and is not restricted to ephemeral events such as resource pulses or heat stress. Our results have implications for the conservation of highly connected, heterogeneous landscapes, and their ability to support economically and ecologically important species such as coho salmon.
The aim of this study was to systematically analyze the potential and limitations of using plant functional trait observations from global databases versus in situ data to improve our understanding of vegetation impacts on ecosystem functional properties (EFPs). Using ecosystem photosynthetic capacity as an example, we first provide an objective approach to derive robust EFP estimates from gross primary productivity (GPP) obtained from eddy covariance flux measurements. Second, we investigate the impact of synchronizing EFPs and plant functional traits in time and space to evaluate their relationships, and the extent to which we can benefit from global plant trait databases to explain the variability of ecosystem photosynthetic capacity. Finally, we identify a set of plant functional traits controlling ecosystem photosynthetic capacity at selected sites. Suitable estimates of the ecosystem photosynthetic capacity can be derived from light response curve of GPP responding to radiation (photosynthetically active radiation or absorbed photosynthetically active radiation). Although the effect of climate is minimized in these calculations, the estimates indicate substantial interannual variation of the photosynthetic capacity, even after removing site‐years with confounding factors like disturbance such as fire events. The relationships between foliar nitrogen concentration and ecosystem photosynthetic capacity are tighter when both of the measurements are synchronized in space and time. When using multiple plant traits simultaneously as predictors for ecosystem photosynthetic capacity variation, the combination of leaf carbon to nitrogen ratio with leaf phosphorus content explains the variance of ecosystem photosynthetic capacity best (adjusted R2 = 0.55). Overall, this study provides an objective approach to identify links between leaf level traits and canopy level processes and highlights the relevance of the dynamic nature of ecosystems. Synchronizing measurements of eddy covariance fluxes and plant traits in time and space is shown to be highly relevant to better understand the importance of intra‐ and interspecific trait variation on ecosystem functioning.  相似文献
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