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The Chilean matorral is characterized by multispecific shrub clumps in dry areas but has a continuous canopy in wetter sites. It has been hypothesized that this difference is due to easier recolonization of open patches by shrub seedlings under more mesic conditions. Within the mesic range of the matorral we designed a field experiment to compare shrub seedling emergence, growth, and survival under the closed canopy of a secondary forest versus three types of open patches: burned, cleared of shrubs but with a herbaceous layer present, and clear without a herbaceous layer. After the first summer, survival of Quillaja saponaria seedlings was 75% in the burned site, 30% in the cleared patch without herbaceous vegetation, and 15% with herbaceous vegetation present, whereas there was 0% survival under the secondary forest canopy. After eight years, the percentages had dropped to: 22%, 12% and 3%, respectively. These results contrast strongly with the seedling establishment patterns in drier areas of the matorral where early seedling survival is higher under the shade of large shrubs. In the experimental mesic sites, seedlings did best on the burned site, not only in terms of survival, but also in terms of growth. After one year, seedling mean height was 10.2 cm in the burned site, whereas 3.8 cm and 5.3 cm in the cleared patches without and with herbaceous respectively. After eight years, mean height differences between treatments had increased further: 147.7 cm in the burned site, 40.3 cm in the cleared patch without herbaceous cover and 13 cm in the cleared patch with herbs. Our results indicate that the facilitative effect of nurse shrubs on seedling establishment found in dry ranges of the matorral is less important in more mesic sites. This difference may explain the continuous shrub cover in relatively mesic areas as opposed to the characteristic patchy structure of the matorral in its drier range.  相似文献
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