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1.
Engineering approaches (nutrient removal, sediment pumping, hypolimnion oxygenation, alum treatments) may be most appropriate to deep lakes where the aim of restoration from eutrophication is simply to reduce the production and crop of one component, the phytoplankton. They do not always give the desired results because the nutrient loading may only be reduced to a limited extent. There are additional problems in shallow lakes where change of state between community dominance (aquatic plants versus plankton) is wanted. Each community has powerful buffering mechanisms and biomanipulation may be essential to switch one state to another even with considerable nutrient reduction. For the phytoplankton-dominated community the buffers include the advantages of early growth, lower diffusion pathways for CO2, overhead shading, and an absence of large cladoceran grazers. This later is because open-water shallow environments provide no refuges against predation for the large Cladocera which are both the most efficient grazers and the most favoured prey for fish. Restoration of aquatic plants may then require provision of refuges for the grazers. Different sorts of refuge are discussed using case studies of Hoveton Great Broad and Cockshoot Broad in the Norfolk Broadland.  相似文献
2.
The effects of planktivorous and benthivorous fish on benthic fauna, zooplankton, phytoplankton and water chemistry were studied experimentally in two eutrophic Swedish lakes using cylindrical enclosures. In enclosures in both lakes, dense fish populations resulted in low numbers of benthic fauna and planktonic cladocerans, high concentration of chlorophyll, blooms of blue-green, algae, high pH and low transparency. In the soft-water Lake Trummen, total phosporus increased in the enclosure with fish, but in the hard-water Lake Bysjön total phosphorus decreased simultaneously with precipitation of calcium carbonate. Enclosures without fish had a higher abundance of benthic fauna and large planktonic cladocerans, lower phytoplankton biomass, lower pH and higher transparency.The changes in enclosures with fish can be described as eutrophication, and those in enclosures without fish as oligotrophication. The possibility of regulation of fish populations as a lake restoration method is discussed.This paper was presented at the XXth SIL Congress in Copenhagen in 1977.  相似文献
3.
The hypertrophic Lake Zwemlust, a small water body used as a swimming pool, was characterized by algal blooms in summer, reducing the Secchi disk transparency to less than 0.3 m. Since in The Netherlands a Secchi disk transparency of 1 m is obligatory for swimming waters, corrective measures were called for to improve the light climate of the lake. In March, 1987, as an experiment, the lake was drained by pumping out the water to facilitate fish elimination. Planktivorous and benthivorous fish species, which were predominant, were removed by seine- and electro-fishing. After the lake had refilled by seepage it was restocked by a new simple fish community comprising pike (Esox lucius) and rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus) only. Stacks of willow twigs (Salix) and macrophytes (roots ofNuphar lutea and seedlings ofChara globularis) were introduced into the lake as spawning grounds and refuges for the pike against cannibalism and as shelter for the zooplankton. The effects of this food web manipulation on the light climate, phytoplankton, zooplankton, fish, macrophytes, macrofauna and on the nutrient concentrations were monitored during 1987 and 1988. In summer 1987, despite of high nutrient concentrations, the phytoplankton density was low, due to control by zooplankton, causing a Secchi disk transparency of 2.5 m, the maximum depth. Chlorophyll-a concentrations were low (<5 g Chl.l–1), blooms of cyanobacteria did not occur and a shift from rotifers to cladocerans took place. In 1988, however, also some negative effects were noticed. Macrophytes and filamentous green algae reached a much higher biomass (50–60% cover of the lake bottom) than in 1987; some species, growing through the entire water column, interfered with the lake's recreational use. Associated with the macro-vegetation and possibly with the absence of larger cyprinids, the diet of which also comprises snails, a large scale development of the snail population, among themLymnaea peregra var.ovata took place. This species is known to act as an intermediate host of the bird-parasitizing trematodeTrichobilharzia ocellata, the cercariae of which cause an itching sensation at the spot of penetration of the human skin, accompanied by rash (schistosome dermatitis or swimmers' itch); in July, 1988, about 40% of the bathers complained about this itching. A positive effect of the macrophytes and filamentous green algae was the high uptake of nitrogen, resulting in a low nitrogen concentration in the lake and growth limitation of the phytoplankton population by nitrogen in the summer of 1988. In 1988 the cladocerans were abundant in April only; and unlike in 1987, in the summer of 1988 there was a shift from cladocerans to rotifers. Therefore, only in early spring (April) zooplankton grazing controlled phytoplankton growth and in summer nitrogen limitation was the major controlling factor, keeping chlorophyll-a concentrations low.  相似文献
4.
The aim of this review is to identify problems, find general patterns, and extract recommendations for successful biomanipulation. An important conclusion is that the pelagic food chain from fish to algae may not be the only process affected by a biomanipulation. Instead, this process should be viewed as the “trigger” for secondary processes, such as establishment of submerged macrophytes, reduced internal loading of nutrients, and reduced resuspension of particles from the sediment. However, fish reduction also leads to a high recruitment of young-of-the-year (YOY) fish, which feed extensively on zooplankton. This expansion of YOY the first years after fish reduction is probably a major reason for less successful biomanipulations. Recent, large-scale biomanipulations have made it possible to update earlier recommendations regarding when, where, and how biomanipulation should be performed. More applicable recommendations include (1) the reduction in the biomass of planktivorous fish should be 75% or more; (2) the fish reduction should be performed efficiently and rapidly (within 1–3 years); (3) efforts should be made to reduce the number of benthic feeding fish; (4) the recruitment of YOY fish should be reduced; (5) the conditions for establishment of submerged macrophytes should be improved; and (6) the external input of nutrients (phosphorus and nitrogen) should be reduced as much as possible before the biomanipulation. Recent biomanipulations have shown that, correctly performed, the method also achieves results in large, relatively deep and eutrophic lakes, at least in a 5-year perspective. Although repeated measures may be necessary, the general conclusion is that biomanipulation is not only possible, but also a relatively inexpensive and attractive method for management of eutrophic lakes, and in particular as a follow-up measure to reduced nutrient load. Received 14 April 1998; accepted 31 August 1998  相似文献
5.
《Hydrobiologia》1990,(1):205-218
The use of fish manipulation as a tool for lake restoration in eutrophic lakes has been investigated since 1986 in three shallow, eutrophic Danish lakes. The lakes differ with respect to nutrient loading and nutrient levels (130–1000 μg P l−1, 1–6 mg N l−1). A 50% removal of planktivorous fish in the less eutrophic cyanobacteria-diatom dominated Lake V?ng caused marked changes in lower trophic levels, phosphorus concentration and transparency. Only minor changes occurred after a 78% removal of planktivorous fish in eutrophic cyanobacteria dominated Frederiksborg Castle Lake. In the hypertrophic, green algae dominated Lake S?byg?rd a low recruitment of all fish species and a 16% removal of fish biomass created substantial changes in trophic structure, but no decrease in phosphorus concentration. The different response pattern is interpreted as (1) a difference in density and persistence of bloomforming cyanobacteria caused by between-lake variations in nutrient levels and probably also mixing- and flushing rates, (2) a difference in specific loss rates through sedimentation of the algal community prevaling after the fish manipulation, (3) a decreased impact of planktivorous fish with increasing mean depth and (4) a lake specific difference in ability to create a self-increasing reduction in the phosphorus level in the lake water. This in turn seems related to the phosphorus loading.  相似文献
6.
The potential of periphyton for phosphorus removal from lakes has been investigated using a novel method involving polypropylene (PP) substrate carriers submerged in the pelagial. The study area Lake 'Fühlinger See' in Cologne (Germany) is a complex of mesoeutrophic gravel pit lakes. The whole site is intensively used as a recreation area. Visitors are thought to be the most important single contributors to lake eutrophication. Carriers were exposed at different depths (2, 3.5, 5 m), for different time intervals (1–8 months) and from March to November PP-sheets were readily colonised by periphyton and a biofilm consisting mainly of benthic diatoms developed. Seasonal variability of periphyton on substrates was observed since filamentous green algae colonised the artificial substrates mainly between July and November. Chlorophyll a content of periphyton on the PP-fleece was up to 240-fold higher than chlorophyll a concentrations in the same volume in the epilimnion. Up to around 100 mg of total phosphorus per m2 PP-fleece was bound and can be eliminated from the lake by removal of the substrate carriers together with the periphyton after four months of exposure. Though large-scale validations are needed, this method may be applicable as a technique to harvest phosphorus from the water column in larger-scale settings.  相似文献
7.
Human activity has been the cause of continuing decline of water quality in most Dutch lakes. Development of lake restoration programmes must take into account the lake functions. Major reduction of the nutrient and pollutant loading is the primary step in lake restoration. Still, the recovery of eutrophic lakes is retarded frequently because of internal phosphorus loading by the lakes' sediments. Sediment dredging, as an additional tool for water quality management to accelerate accomplishing the desired water quality, is studied. In this paper we evaluate the preliminary results of eight lake restoration projects in the Netherlands. The lakes are compared in order to estimate the magnitude of the internal phosphorus loading. Dredging as an additional measure was carried out twice in the peatlake Geerplas. In the Nieuwkoop Lakes only the external phosphorus loading was substantially reduced from 0.9 to 0.2 g P m–2 y–1. Provisional results of these two shallow peatlake restoration projects focussed on eutrophication abatement with and without dredging, are presented. Both show a decrease in phosphorus concentration in the lakes. The necessity to dredge the lakes is discussed.  相似文献
8.
Lake Breukeleveen (180 ha, mean depth 1.45 m), a compartment of the eutrophic Loosdrecht lakes system, was selected to study the effects of whole-lake foodweb manipulation on a large scale. In Lake Loosdrecht (dominated by filamentous cyanobacteria), due to water management measures taken from 1970–1984 (sewerage systems, dephosphorization) the external P load has been reduced from 1.2 g m−2 y−1 to 0.35 g m−2 y−1. The water transparency (Secchi-depthca. 30 cm), however, has not improved. The aim of the food-web manipulation in Lake Breukeleveen was not only to improve the light climate of the lake, but also to study if the successfull effects observed in small lakes (a few ha) can be upscaled. In March 1989 the standing crop of planktivorous and bentivorous fish populations was reduced by intensive fishery, fromca. 150 kg ha−1 toca. 57 kg ha−1. The lake was made unaccessible to fish migrating from the other lakes and it was stocked with large-sized daphnids and 0+ pike. However, water transparency did not increase in the following summer and autumn 1989, which is in contrast with great improvement in the light conditions previously observed in smaller lakes. The main explanations for the negative outcome in Lake Breukeleveen are: 1) the rapid increase of the planktivorous fish biomass and carnivorous cladocerans, predating on the zooplankton community; 2) suppression of the large daphnids by the high concentrations of filamentous cyanobacteria; 3) high turbidity of the lake due to resuspension of bottom material induced by wind, unlike in smaller lakes, and thus inability of submerged macrophytes to develop and to stabilize the ecosystem.  相似文献
9.
Whole-lake food-web manipulation was carried out in the hypertrophic Lake Zwemlust (The Netherlands), with the aim of studying the effects on the lake's trophic status and to gain an insight into complex interactions among lake communities. Before manipulation this small (1.5 ha) and shallow (1.5 m) lake was characterized byMicrocystis blooms in summer and high chlorophyll-a concentrations were common (ca. 250 μg 1−1). In March 1987 the planktivorous and benthivorous fish species in the lake were completely removed (ca. 1000 kg ha−1), a new simple fish community (pike and rudd) was introduced and artificial refuges were created. The effects of this manipulation on the light climate, nutrient concentrations, phytoplankton, zooplankton, fish, macrophytes, and macrofauna were monitored during 1987, 1988 and 1989. Community interactions were investigated in phytoplankton bioassays and zooplankton grazing experiments. After the manipulation, despite the still high P and N loads to the lake (ca. 2.2 g P m−2 y−1 andca. 5.3 g N m−2 y−1), the phytoplankton density was low (Chl-a<5μg l−1), due to control by large-sized zooplankton in spring and N-limitation in summer and autumn. A marked increase in the abundance of macrophytes and filamentous green algae in 1988 and 1989, as well as N loss due to denitrification, contributed to the N limitation of the phytoplankton. Before manipulation no submerged macro-vegetation was present but in 1988, the second year after manipulation, about 50% of the lake bottom was covered by macrophytes increasing to 80% in 1989. This led to substantial accumulation of both N and P, namely 76% and 73% respectively of the total nutrients in the lake in particulate matter. Undesirable features of the increase in macrophytes were: 1) direct nuisance to swimmers; and, 2) the large scale development of snails, especiallyL. peregra, which may harbour the parasite causing ‘swimmers' itch’. But harvesting of only about 3% of the total macrophyte biomass from the swimmers' area, twice a year, reduced the nuisance for swimmers without adversely affecting the water clarity.  相似文献
10.
The paper summarizes the results of a ten-year (1981–1991) zooplankton research on the Lake Loosdrecht, a highly eutrophic lake. The main cause of the lake's eutrophication and deteriorating water quality was supply up to mid 1984 of water from the River Vecht. This supply was replaced by dephosphorized water from the Amsterdam-Rhine Canal in 1984. The effects of this and other restoration measures on the lake's ecosystem were studied. Despite a reduction in the external P-load from ca. 1.0 g P m–2 y–1 to ca. 0.35 g m–2 y–1 now, the filamentous prokaryotes, including cyanobacteria and Prochlorothrix, continue to dominate the phytoplankton.Among the crustacean plankton Bosmina spp, Chydorus sp. and three species of cyclopoid copepods and their nauplii are quite common. Though there was no major change in the composition of abundant species, Daphnia cucullata, which is the only daphnid in these lakes, became virtually extinct since 1989. Among about 20 genera and 40 species of rotifers the important ones are: Anuraeopsis fissa, Keratella cochlearis, Filinia longiseta and Polyarthra. The rotifers usually peak in mid-summer following the crustacean peak in spring. The mean annual densities of crustaceans decreased during 1988–1991. Whereas seston (< 150 µm) mean mass in the lake increased since 1983 by 20–60%, zooplankton (> 150 µm) mass decreased by 15–35%.The grazing by crustacean community, which was attributable mainly to Bosmina, had mean rates between 10 and 25% d–1. Between 42 and 47% of the food ingested was assimilated. In spring and early summer when both rotifers and crustaceans have their maximal densities the clearance rates of the rotifers were much higher. Based on C/P ratios, the zooplankton (> 150 µm) mass contained 2.5 times more phosphorus than seston (< 150 µm) mass so that the zooplankton comprised 12.5 % of the total-P in total particulate matter in the open water, compared with only 4.5% of the total particulate C. The mean excretion rates of P by zooplankton varied narrowly between 1.5 and 1.8 µg P 1 d–1, which equalled between 14 and 28% d–1 of the P needed for phytoplankton production.The lack of response to restoration measures cannot be ascribed to one single factor. Apparently, the external P-loading is still not low enough and internal P-loading, though low, may be still high enough to sustain high seston levels. Intensive predation by bream is perhaps more important than food quality (high concentrations of filamentous cyanobacteria) in depressing the development of large-bodied zooplankton grazers, e.g. Daphnia. This may also contribute to resistance of the lake's ecosystem to respond to rehabilitation measures.  相似文献
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