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1.
中国生态地域划分的若干问题   总被引:68,自引:8,他引:60       下载免费PDF全文
杨勤业  李双成 《生态学报》1999,19(5):596-601
生态地域划分对于正确认识生态系统的地域组合特征及其分异规律,合理开发和保护区域资源,进行科学区域环境整治具有重要意义。在回顾区划工作历程,比较生态地域划分与其它区划差异的基础上,提出了生态地域划分的性质,原则和依据,并依此拟定了中国生态地域划分方案。  相似文献
2.
采集湖南主产烟区B2F、C3F、X2F3个等级烟叶样本559份,通过测定烟叶硫含量,研究了湖南烤烟硫含量的区域特征及烟叶硫含量与烟叶评吸质量评价指标间的量化关系.结果表明:湖南主产烟区烤烟硫含量范围为0.100%~2.106%,均值为0.884%,其中含量大于0.7%的样本占71.6%;在区域差异方面,烤烟硫含量由湘中高值区域逐渐向湘南和湘西北降低.随着烟叶硫含量的增加,烤烟的香气质、余味、燃烧性和灰色变差,杂气和刺激性增加,香味、吃味和评吸总分分值降低.受大量施用硫酸钾和大气硫沉降的影响,湖南部分烟区烟叶硫含量偏高,对烟叶品质产生负面影响,已成为目前影响烟叶质量提高的关键因素之一,在生产中应引起足够的重视.  相似文献
3.
洱海流域水生态分区   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4  
分区边界的确定是生态分区的重要步骤,但目前多数水生态分区的边界确定以定性分析、专家判断为主。本研究以洱海流域为例,建立了一套两级分区体系。该体系基于GIS技术,用子流域作为分区基本单元,并用相关分析法,定量筛选一、二级分区指标。其中,一级分区指标为高程、坡度和植被归一化指数(NDVI),二级分区指标为农田百分比和城镇百分比。通过指标图层的叠加和重分类,合并同质性子流域,从而将洱海流域划分为5个一级区和9个二级区。藻类群落分布的验证结果表明分区合理。本研究将定量分析和子流域边界应用于水生态分区,使分区边界的确定更科学,在实际管理中更具有可操作性。本研究结果为水生态分区研究提供了新的方法,为洱海流域水生态管理提供了基本管理单元。  相似文献
4.
Developing a wetland-type classification system in the Republic of Korea   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
Though there are wetlands listed by the IUCN and wetland protection areas designated by the government, it is presumed that there would be more wetlands in Korea when they are surveyed and classified according to international wetland criteria, but a considerable amount of area is yet to be identified. Therefore, in order to conduct a systematic status survey on the wetlands of Korea, a wetland classification system needs to be developed first. The objectives of this paper include reviewing international wetland classifications and mapping systems of the USA, Germany, the Netherlands, Japan and North Korea and developing a wetland classification and mapping system appropriate to Korea based on an understanding of the major case examples of wetland types. Then, the developed system was applied to the Phanmun field watershed located at the western DMZ in Korea to conduct a case study. The overall process of a wetland classification and mapping system developed in this study is undertaken as the following from step 1 to step 5. First, wetlands are identified based on three parameters: hydrology, hydrophytes and hydric soil. Second, wetland delineation distinguished wetland areas and non-wetland areas by identifying wetlands through a field survey. Third, an ecological survey is conducted in order to classify wetland characteristics and types for the target area. Ecological survey items include the topography, landscape, biota, pollutant sources and land use status. Fourth, a wetland classification is developed through a hybrid approach based on HGM (the hydrogeomorphic method). Level 1 is classified into inland, estuarine and costal areas. Level 2, the target area, is classified as an eco-region at a watershed level, and level 3 is classified into depression, riverine, slope, flat and fringe areas based on a HGM approach. Level 4 is classified into detailed wetland types based on specific characteristics of wetlands. Level 5 is classified into marsh and swamp based on grasslands and shrubs and forest trees. Level 6 indicates the dominant vegetation communities.
Hee-Sun Choi (Corresponding author)Email: Phone: +82-2-8804881Fax: +82-2-8754818
  相似文献
5.
自然保护区体系构建方法研究进展   总被引:1,自引:0,他引:1  
面对越来越严重的野生生物的生境丧失和生境破碎化威胁,如何构建科学的自然保护区体系成为自然保护区学领域研究的热点问题.本文在对国内外自然保护区体系构建文献分类整理的情况下,具体介绍了保护空缺分析、保护优先区分析和生态区保护规划分析等自然保护区合理布局方法,以及生境廊道规划设计方法.对各种方法的优缺点和适用条件进行了分析,提出了目前自然保护区体系构建方法研究中存在的问题,并探讨了未来的研究方向,以期对自然保护区体系构建的研究和实践提供一定的参考,促进自然保护区事业的发展.  相似文献
6.
叶延琼  陈国阶 《生态学报》2006,26(7):2174-2182
收集了岷江上游5县92个乡(镇)的自然与社会经济数据,运用生态学与景观生态学的原理和方法,分别建立传统生态区划(自上而下)和景观生态区划(自下而上)的指标体系,借助GIS工具和多元统计分析软件,通过对要素指标空间分异的特性分析,进行了岷江上游以乡(镇)为最小单元的生态区划研究.根据岷江上游乡(镇)域尺度上的生态环境状况和人类活动状况,传统生态区划将研究区划分为3个大区,而景观生态区划则为4个大区,但二者间的基本轮廓大体相似.为识别两种区划方法间的异同,比较与分析了自然环境复杂区域的小区级划分结果.分析表明,两种区划方法在划分依据、信息识别以及适用范围等方面均存在较大差异,在小区划分中,景观生态区划对自然环境条件复杂区域的区划优势明显.  相似文献
7.
Twenty-two genospecies belonging mainly to Mesorhizobium, and occasionally to Rhizobium and Bradyrhizobium, were defined among the 174 rhizobia strains isolated from Caragana species. Highly similar nodC genes were found in the sole Bradyrhizobium strain and among all the detected Mesorhizobium strains. A clear correlation between rhizobial genospecies and the eco-regions where they were isolated was found using homogeneity analysis. All these results demonstrated that Caragana species had stringently selected the rhizobia symbiotic genotype, but not the genomic background; lateral transfer of symbiotic genes from Mesorhizobium to Bradyrhizobium and among the Mesorhizobium species has happened in the Caragana rhizobia; and biogeography of Caragana rhizobia exists. Furthermore, a combined cluster analysis, based upon the patterns obtained from amplified 16S rRNA gene and 16S–23S intergenic spacer restriction analyses, BOX PCR and SDS-PAGE of proteins, was reported to be an efficient method to define the genospecies.  相似文献
8.
The paper couples the results obtained by applying the expert and the rapid Macrophyte Quality Indices set up to assess the ecological status of the Italian transitional environments according to the requirements by the Water Framework Directive (2000/60/CE). The indices were validated by comparing the composition of the macrophyte assemblages and the values of some bio-physico-chemical parameters of the water column of 20 stations of the Venice lagoon sampled monthly for one year between 2003 and 2005. In 5 stations out of the 20, the ones which fall within the 5 classes of ecological status suggested by the Water Framework Directive, sedimentation rates, sediment grain-size, and nutrient and pollutant (metals, Polychloro-Dibenzo-Dioxins/Furans, Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons, Pesticides and Polychlorinated Biphenils) concentrations in surface sediments were also determined. Results showed strong relationships between the trends of these environmental parameters and the composition and structure of macrophyte associations, as well as with the Macrophyte Quality Index assessment. Chlorophyceae showed a trend opposite to Rhodophyceae whose presence was concentrated in oxygenated and transparent environments. Chlorophyceae and the species characterised by low scores prevailed in turbid areas where nutrient and pollutant concentrations were high. Results allowed the identification of the conditions of the “reference sites” (confinement areas and sites with high water renewal) and the integration of the dichotomic key used for the application of the R-MaQI. Handling editor: S. M. Thomaz  相似文献
9.
Understanding plant species diversity patterns and distributions is critical for conserving and sustainably managing tropical rain forests of high conservation value. We analyzed the alpha‐diversity, species abundance distributions, and relative ecological importance of woody species in the Budongo Forest, a remnant forest of the Albertine Rift in Uganda. In 32 0.5‐ha plots, we recorded 269 species in 171 genera and 51 families with stems of ≥2.0 cm in diameter at breast height (dbh). There were 53 more species with stems of ≥2.0 cm dbh than with stems of ≥10 cm dbh, of which 33 were treelets and 20 were multi‐stemmed shrubs. For both minimum stem diameter cut‐offs (i.e., ≥2 cm dbh vs. ≥10 cm dbh), the Fabaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Ulmaceae, and Meliaceae families and the species Cynometra alexandri, Lasiodiscus mildbraedii, and Celtis mildbraedii had the highest relative ecological importance. The relative ecological importance of some species and families changed greatly with the minimum stem diameter measured. Alpha‐diversity, species richness, and species abundance distributions varied across historical management practice types, forest community types, and as a function of minimum stem diameter. Species richness and Shannon–Weiner diversity index were greater for species with stems of ≥2.0 cm dbh than of ≥10 cm dbh. The decrease in species evenness with an increasing number of plots was accompanied by an increase in species richness for trees of both minimum diameters. This forest is characterized by a small number of abundant species and a relatively large proportion of infrequent species, many of which are sparsely distributed and with restricted habitats. We recommend lowering the minimum stem diameter measured for woody species diversity studies in tropical forests from 10 cm dbh to 2 cm dbh to include a larger proportion of the species pool.  相似文献
10.
孙立群  李晴岚  陈骥  牛俊 《生态学报》2018,38(22):8051-8059
欧亚大陆是“一带一路”战略规划的核心区域,了解欧亚大陆植被生长对降水的响应机制是该战略顺利实施的科学与生态基础。采用1982—2015年的归一化植被指数NDVI(Normalized Difference Vegetation Index)和全球气象格点数据,通过计算偏相关系数,排除温度及日照辐射的共同作用,分析植被对降水的响应关系(RNDVI-Prep)在不同季节、不同生态区的分异特征。在夏季,RNDVI-Prep为显著正相关的地区广泛地分布在35°—60°N之间的欧亚大陆干旱、半干旱地区以及南亚次大陆西北和南部地区;在春季和秋季,RNDVI-Prep为显著正相关的地区分布则相对于夏季显得更为集中,某些显著相关的区域的边界和现有的生态区划边界有很好的一致性。使用17年为一个周期的时间滑动窗口,分析不同季节上RNDVI-Prep从1982至2015的变化规律,发现夏季植被呈现对降水依赖的地区所处纬度要高于春、秋两季。中亚干旱、半干旱生态区的植被在春、夏两季对降水依赖较强;南亚次大陆西北部地区的干旱、半干旱及东南亚的雨林地区在夏、秋两季对降水依赖较强,且秋季的分布最为集中。以生态区为视角,对欧亚大陆的植被与降水的关系有了更为深入的了解,可以为不同区域应对和适应气候变化提供决策依据。  相似文献
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