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Aphids and crane flies in amber purported to have originated in China were examined. Six aphid specimens were characterised and determined to be conspecific with Germaraphis defuncta Heie, originally described from Baltic amber. Two crane flies from the same collection were identified as Cheilotrichia minuta and Rhabdomastix brevis, species also previously described from Baltic amber. This study shows that when the locality of an amber source is ambiguous, fossils can be used to determine the true province.  相似文献
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The European crane fly (ECF), Tipula paludosa Meigen feeds on leaves, crowns, and roots of cool-season turfgrasses causing damage to residential lawns and golf courses. A laboratory study was conducted to determine the susceptibility of ECF larvae to four commercial entomopathogenic nematode (EPN) species (Heterorhabditis marelatus, H. megidis, Steinernema carpocapsae and S. feltiae). The virulence of four S. feltiae isolates recovered from golf courses in Quebec and Ontario were also compared to a commercial strain. LC50 values of EPN against late instar ECF larvae were 152, 562, 763, and 3584 for S. feltiae, H. megidis, H. marelatus and S. carpocapsae, respectively. When non-feeding (without grass seedling), ECF larvae mortalities decreased for all nematode species and concentrations tested. At 25°C, LC50 values for the two most virulent indigenous S. feltiae were 129 and 187 nematodes/larva, not different from the commercial strain. At 5°C, the commercial S. feltiae was more effective than both BIC14A and RE6A isolates against ECF larvae. However, at 15°C, BIC14A was the most virulent at the low concentration of 200 IJs/larva.  相似文献
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Tipula paludosa (Diptera: Nematocera) is the major insect pest in grassland in Northwest Europe and has been accidentally introduced to North America. Oviposition occurs during late August and first instars hatch from September until mid-October. Laboratory and field trials were conducted to assess the control potential of entomopathogenic nematodes (EPN) (Steinernema carpocapsae and S. feltiae) and Bacillus thuringiensis subsp. israelensis (Bti) against T. paludosa and to investigate whether synergistic effects can be exploited by simultaneous application of nematodes and Bti. Results indicate that the early instars of the insect are most susceptible to nematodes and Bti. In the field the neonates prevail when temperatures tend to drop below 10 °C. S. carpocapsae, reaching >80% control, is more effective against young stages of T. paludosa than S. feltiae (<50%), but the potential of S. carpocapsae might be limited by temperatures below 12 °C. Mortality of T. paludosa caused by Bti was not affected by temperature even at 4 °C but the lethal time increased with decreasing temperatures. Synergistic effects of Bti and EPN against T. paludosa were observed in 3 out of 10 combinations in laboratory assays but not in a field trial. The potential of S. carpocapsae was demonstrated in field trials against early instars in October reaching an efficacy of >80% with 0.5 million nematodes m−2 at soil temperatures ranging between 3 and 18 °C. Results with Bti were strongly influenced by the larval stage and concentration. Against early instars in autumn between 74 and 83% control was achieved with 13 kg ha−1 Bti of 5,700 International Toxic Units (ITUs) and 20 kg ha−1 of 3,000 ITUs. Applications in spring against third and fourth instars achieved between 0 and 32% reduction. The results indicate that application of Bti and nematodes will only be successful and economically feasible during the early instars and that the success of S. carpocapsae is dependent on temperatures >12 °C. Synergistic effects between S. carpocapsae and Bti require more detailed investigations in the field to determine maximal effect.  相似文献
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大蚊属Tipula Linnaeus,1758是大蚊科中种类最多的属,目前其单系性尚未得到全面验证.此外,长角大蚊亚属Tipula (Sivatipula) Alexander,1964因其极长的触角以及独有的精子泵结构,明显不同于大蚊属其他亚属,使其亚属的分类地位存在争议.本研究基于COI序列对19个大蚊属物种及5个其他属物种进行了系统发育分析,并计算了物种间的遗传距离.研究结果表明:(1)邻接树(NJ)和最大似然树(ML)均显示长角大蚊亚属与大蚊属其他亚属未形成单系,大蚊属的单系性没有得到支持;(2)基于遗传距离和系统发育分析并结合形态信息,结果显示长角大蚊亚属独立于大蚊属内其他亚属,应将其提升为属级分类单元.  相似文献
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Three species of crane flies-Dactylolabis montana, Limonia simulans,and Antocha saxicola-gather near streams to mate and oviposit. All species are polygamous and sex ratios at these sites are male-biased. After a short mating bout, males guard females by standing over them during oviposition. Sperm competition appears to be intense and to follow last-male advantage, based on the packing of sperm within the two elongate spermathecae. Males of A. saxicolasuccessfully defend against rivals over 85% of the time. In contrast, defending males of D. montanaand L. simulanslose the female over 65% of the time during interactions with rivals. Despite the high frequency of loss, defending males gain additional oviposition time by engaging rivals in combat while the female continues to oviposit. Thus, a guarding male does not have to retain the female for guarding to be adaptive. Legs and claws of all species are sexually dimorphic and play an important role in guarding and defending.  相似文献
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