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Xylanases, xylanase families and extremophilic xylanases   总被引:32,自引:0,他引:32  
Xylanases are hydrolytic enzymes which randomly cleave the beta 1,4 backbone of the complex plant cell wall polysaccharide xylan. Diverse forms of these enzymes exist, displaying varying folds, mechanisms of action, substrate specificities, hydrolytic activities (yields, rates and products) and physicochemical characteristics. Research has mainly focused on only two of the xylanase containing glycoside hydrolase families, namely families 10 and 11, yet enzymes with xylanase activity belonging to families 5, 7, 8 and 43 have also been identified and studied, albeit to a lesser extent. Driven by industrial demands for enzymes that can operate under process conditions, a number of extremophilic xylanases have been isolated, in particular those from thermophiles, alkaliphiles and acidiphiles, while little attention has been paid to cold-adapted xylanases. Here, the diverse physicochemical and functional characteristics, as well as the folds and mechanisms of action of all six xylanase containing families will be discussed. The adaptation strategies of the extremophilic xylanases isolated to date and the potential industrial applications of these enzymes will also be presented.  相似文献
2.
Thermomyces lanuginosus: properties of strains and their hemicellulases   总被引:7,自引:0,他引:7  
The non-cellulolytic Thermomyces lanuginosus is a widespread and frequently isolated thermophilic fungus. Several strains of this fungus have been reported to produce high levels of cellulase-free beta-xylanase both in shake-flask and bioreactor cultivations but intraspecies variability in terms of beta-xylanase production is apparent. Furthermore all strains produce low extracellular levels of other hemicellulases involved in hemicellulose hydrolysis. Crude and purified hemicellulases from this fungus are stable at high temperatures in the range of 50-80 degrees C and over a broad pH range (3-12). Various strains are reported to produce a single xylanase with molecular masses varying between 23 and 29 kDa and pI values between 3.7 and 4.1. The gene encoding the T. lanuginosus xylanase has been cloned and sequenced and is shown to be a member of family 11 glycosyl hydrolases. The crystal structure of the xylanase indicates that the enzyme consists of two beta-sheets and one alpha-helix and forms a rigid complex with the three central sugars of xyloheptaose whereas the peripheral sugars might assume different configurations thereby allowing branched xylan chains to be accepted. The presence of an extra disulfide bridge between the beta-strand and the alpha-helix, as well as to an increase in the density of charged residues throughout the xylanase might contribute to the thermostability. The ability of T. lanuginosus to produce high levels of cellulase-free thermostable xylanase has made the fungus an attractive source of thermostable xylanase with potential as a bleach-boosting agent in the pulp and paper industry and as an additive in the baking industry.  相似文献
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木聚糖酶的应用现状与研发热点   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
木聚糖酶是近年来应用日益广泛的工业用酶.本文综述了木聚糖酶在饲料、食品、造纸及能源等领域的应用现状与研发热点,展望了木聚糖酶的应用前景.  相似文献
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