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1.
菌根植物根际环境对污染土壤中Cu、Zn、Pb、Cd形态的影响   总被引:58,自引:5,他引:53  
采用根垫法和连续形态分析技术,分析了生长在污灌土壤中菌根小麦和无菌根小麦根际Cu、Zn、Pb、Cd的形态分布和变化趋势。结果表明,下对照土壤相比,菌根际土壤中交换态Cu含量显著增加,交换态Cd呈减少的趋势;与非菌根际相比,Cu、Zn、Pb的有机结合态在菌根根际中显著增加,而4种测定金属2的碳酸盐态和铁锰氧化态都没有显著改变,该结果表明,植物根系能影响根际中金属形态的变化,且菌根比无菌根的影响程度大  相似文献
2.
 High concentrations of heavy metals in soil have an adverse effect on micro-organisms and microbial processes. Among soil microorganisms, mycorrhizal fungi are the only ones providing a direct link between soil and roots, and can therefore be of great importance in heavy metal availability and toxicity to plants. This review discusses various aspects of the interactions between heavy metals and mycorrhizal fungi, including the effects of heavy metals on the occurrence of mycorrhizal fungi, heavy metal tolerance in these micro-organisms, and their effect on metal uptake and transfer to plants. Mechanisms involved in metal tolerance, uptake and accumulation by mycorrhizal hyphae and by endo- or ectomycorrhizae are covered. The possible use of mycorrhizal fungi as bioremediation agents in polluted soils or as bioindicators of pollution is also discussed. Accepted: 23 June 1997  相似文献
3.
Nutrient uptake in mycorrhizal symbiosis   总被引:41,自引:2,他引:39  
The role of mycorrhizal fungi in acquisition of mineral nutrients by host plants is examined for three groups of mycorrhizas. These are; the ectomycorrhizas (ECM), the ericoid mycorrhizas (EM), and the vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizas (VAM). Mycorrhizal infection may affect the mineral nutrition of the host plant directly by enhancing plant growth through nutrient acquisition by the fungus, or indirectly by modifying transpiration rates and the composition of rhizosphere microflora. A capacity for the external hyphae to take up and deliver nutrients to the plant has been demonstrated for the following nutrients and mycorrhizas; P (VAM, EM, ECM), NH4 + (VAM, EM, ECM), NO3 - (ECM), K (VAM, ECM), Ca (VAM, EM), SO4 2- (VAM), Cu (VAM), Zn (VAM) and Fe (EM). In experimental chambers, the external hyphae of VAM can deliver up to 80% of plant P, 25% of plant N, 10% of plant K, 25% of plant Zn and 60% of plant Cu. Knowledge of the role of mycorrhiza in the uptake of nutrients other than P and N is limited because definitive studies are few, especially for the ECM. Although further quantification is required, it is feasible that the external hyphae may provide a significant delivery system for N, K, Cu and Zn in addition to P in many soils. Proposals that ECM and VAM fungi contribute substantially to the Mg, B and Fe nutrition of the host plant have not been substantiated. ECM and EM fungi produce ectoenzymes which provide host plants with the potential to access organic N and P forms that are normally unavailable to VAM fungi or to non mycorrhizal roots. The relative contribution of these nutrient sources requires quantification in the field. Further basic research, including the quantification of nutrient uptake and transport by fungal hyphae in soil and regulation at the fungal-plant interface, is essential to support the selection and utilization of mycorrhizal fungi on a commercial scale.  相似文献
4.
菌根真菌在生态系统中的作用   总被引:37,自引:1,他引:36       下载免费PDF全文
 菌根是一种植物营养根与土壤真菌形成的共生体,在自然界中分布广泛。本文着重从以下几个方面介绍相关的研究进展:1) 菌根真菌作为生态系统的重要组成部分,具有不可忽视的生物量,并成为连接绿色植物和食真菌者食物链的重要一环;2) 菌根真菌通过参与凋落物的酶降解过程影响有机物的循环,通过促进生物固氮、加速土壤磷的风化、提高土壤溶液离子的有效性以及直接吸收等过程影响氮、磷、钾、钙、镁等元素的无机循环;3) 菌根真菌与土壤微生物间存在有益的或拮抗的相互作用,并可以直接或间接地影响根际生物区系的组成和数量;菌根真菌通过对宿主植物的有益作用而影响植物的种间竞争,通过菌根网络而形成的种团可以在同种或不同种植物间实现资源的重新分配和共享;由于对种间关系的作用和对食物链的影响,菌根真菌对群落的物种构成和多样性的维持具有重要的作用;菌根真菌是群落演替过程的指示者,也是这一过程的参与者和推动者,并且菌根真菌的存在也有利于提高土壤团聚体的稳定性及促进灰壤的形成;4) 菌根真菌的种类和数量可以指示生态系统中自然的或人类活动引起的变化,并可以在生态系统的保护、恢复或重建过程中发挥重要作用。文章的最后还介绍了最新的研究热点和发展趋势。  相似文献
5.
Plant and mycorrhizal regulation of rhizodeposition   总被引:31,自引:7,他引:24  
6.
7.
菌根及其在荒漠化土地恢复中的应用   总被引:29,自引:2,他引:27  
对菌根的作用及其荒漠化对其影响,以及菌根在荒漠化土地恢复中的应用进行了探讨,指出菌根不仅能够促进植物个体养分的吸收,提高植物光合作用,增强植物抗旱、抗盐性,而且能够调节群落内植物间的关系、群落的演替轨道及其生物多样性、耕作、灌溉、过度放牧和开矿等诱发土地荒漠化过程的人类活动直接影响菌根的建立和生存,采用外来菌引入及原来残存菌培育,在恢复区建立丛状菌根植物,菌木化菌根造林及开矿土地管理中表土的存贮等方式都会有力地促进恢复地菌根的建立,并可缩短恢复周期。  相似文献
8.
The aim of the present work was to study colonization patterns in roots by different arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi developing from a mixed community in soil. As different fungi cannot be distinguished with certainty in planta on the basis of fungal structures, taxon-discriminating molecular probes were developed. The 5' end of the large ribosomal subunit containing the variable domains D1 and D2 was amplified by PCR from Glomus mosseae (BEG12), G. intraradices (LPA8), Gigaspora rosea (BEG9) and Scutellospora castanea (BEG1) using newly designed eukaryote-specific primers. Sequences of the amplification products showed high interspecies variability and PCR taxon-discriminating primers were designed to distinguish between each of these four fungi. A nested PCR, using universal eukaryotic primers for the first amplification and taxon-discriminating primers for the second, was performed on individual trypan blue-stained mycorrhizal root fragments of onion and leek, and root colonization by four fungi inoculated together in a microcosm experiment was estimated. More than one fungus was detected in the majority of root fragments and all four fungi frequently co-existed within the same root fragment. Root colonization by G. mosseae and G. intraradices was similar from individual and mixed inoculum, whilst the frequency of S. castanea and Gig. rosea increased in the presence of the two Glomus species, suggesting that synergistic interactions may exist between some arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.  相似文献
9.
Coevolution of roots and mycorrhizas of land plants   总被引:29,自引:7,他引:22  
10.
Root turnover and productivity of coniferous forests   总被引:29,自引:1,他引:28  
R. Fogel 《Plant and Soil》1983,71(1-3):75-85
Summary Fine roots and mycorrhizae have recently been shown to produce a major portion of the organic matter entering decomposition. Roots and mycorrhizae constitute 63 to 70% of total net primary production in Douglas-fir and Pacific silver fir stands. The importance of roots in primary production makes the method of root extraction from the soil important. Wet-sieving with small mesh screens is more effective than hand-sorting for fine roots and mycorrhizae. Screen size, the efficiency of recovery, the physiological status of the roots and coversion factors to derive biomass from the numbers of root tips should be stated. Published data is enhanced if the phenological status of the stand, its age, tree density, and soil texture are quoted.Given the large fluxes in fine root and mycorrhiza populations, single biomass estimates are not useful in studies of ecosystem structure and function. A better understanding needs accurate methods to distinguish live and dead roots, data on the production and turnover of large roots, and data on the transfer of nutrients accompanying the large input of roots to decomposition.  相似文献
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