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多不饱和脂肪酸的研究进展   总被引:3,自引:0,他引:3       下载免费PDF全文
多不饱和脂肪酸(PUFAs)为一独特的生物活性物质,在生物系统中具有广泛的功能。过去二十年的研究已经揭示了其作用、参与类二十烷的代谢机理及在哺乳动物中的体内平衡功能。越来越多的研究认为:在类二十烷代谢系统中,采用普通的医疗条件诊治因多不饱和脂肪酸吸收和代谢紊乱所致的疾病效果甚微随着PUFAs开发应用领域的扩大,纯PUFAs脂质的需求量越来越多,而来自于植物、哺乳动物和海洋鱼的PUFAs远远不能满足市场需求,微生物特别是藻类、真菌能合成几乎所有的PUFAs并能在工业规模上培育而被视为有开发价值的可替代的生物资源 。  相似文献
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Royal jelly from Apis mellifera is a highly active natural biological substance and is probably one of the most interesting raw substances in natural product chemistry. Trace elements play a key role in the biomedical activities associated with royal jelly, as these elements have a multitude of known and unknown biological functions. For this reason concentrations of 28 trace (Al, Ba, Sr, Bi, Cd, Hg, Pb, Sn, Te, Tl, W, Sb, Cr, Ni, Ti, V, Co, Mo) and mineral (P, S, Ca, Mg, K, Na, Zn, Fe, Cu, Mn) elements were systematically investigated in botanically and geologically defined royal jelly samples. In addition, concentrations of 14 trace elements were measured in the associated honey samples--honey being the precursor of royal jelly. Concentrations of K, Na, Mg, Ca, P, S, Cu, Fe, Zn, Al, Ba and Sr in royal jelly were determined by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES), while concentrations of Bi, Cd, Hg, Pb, Sn, Te, Tl, W, Sb, Cr, Mn, Ni, Ti, V, Co and Mo in royal jelly were determined by double focusing magnetic sector field inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SF-ICP-MS). In the honey samples, trace and mineral element concentrations strongly depended on botanical and geological origin, and substantial variation was found. In contrast, the concentrations of trace and mineral elements were highly constant in the associated royal jelly samples. The most important results were the homeostatic adjustments of trace and mineral element concentrations in royal jelly. This effect was evidently produced in the endocrine glands of nurse bees, which are adapted for needs of bee larvae. In conclusion, this research yielded a surprising and completely new finding--that royal jelly, as a form of lactation on the insect level, shows the same homeostatic adjustment as mammalian and human breast milk.  相似文献
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Traditional methods of visualization and analysis based on fixed cell populations treated with the drug for a different time give the limited possibility of time-sequence analysis. In time-lapse microscopy where the whole cell is observed regardless to intracellular structure, precise localization of events and differentiation between colocalization and overlapping of the fluorescence is impossible. Furthermore prolonged experiments with living cells increased the influence of improper environmental conditions. Homeostatic confocal microscopy gives an exceptional insight into minute pattern of changes occurring in the same living cell maintained in stable conditions during whole experimental period. It is built on a confocal system equipped with the homeostatic chamber providing constant, monitored heating and moisturized, CO2-enriched atmosphere during long period observations. In the present study 2D/time and 4D homeostatic confocal microscopy were applied for analysis of minute pattern of changes occurring at the mitochondria. The release of Smac/DIABLO from mitochondria in tumor cells under the apoptogenic stimulus, consist of two phases: the first immediately after drug administration, and the major second one after 15 min. Furthermore the time-pattern of BAX translocation to the mitochondria and Smac/DIABLO release coincide, suggesting that the release of Smac/DIABLO is correlated with BAX translocation to the mitochondria.  相似文献
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Identification of nitric oxide (NO) as a neurotransmitter in the CNS resulted in initiation of numerous studies aimed at elucidating the roles of NO not only at a cellular level, but also in regulation of the activity of specific physiological systems coordinated by the brain. In this lecture, we will discuss the state of current knowledge about cellular events in the brain realized with the involvement of NO, distribution of NO-producing neurons in cerebral structures providing central cardiovascular control, peculiarities of NO production, and mechanisms underlying NO-mediated neuromodulatory effects on cardiovascular function. Activation of the NO system in the lower brainstem modulates a variety of neuronal pathways; NO was shown to induce GABA and glutamate releases within the medulla. The NO system in the brain is activated in the states of homeostatic imbalance, including hypertension and stress.Neirofiziologiya/Neurophysiology, Vol. 36, Nos. 5/6, pp. 466–478, September–December, 2004.This revised version was published online in April 2005 with a corrected cover date and copyright year.  相似文献
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It has been shown recently that prolonged blockade of neuronal firing activates several homeostatic mechanisms in neocortical networks, including alteration of glutamatergic and GABA-ergic synaptic transmission, and postsynaptic changes are involved in both cases. We studied whether such treatment also affects GABA-ergic synaptic transmission in hippocampal cell cultures. Using whole-cell voltage-clamp recording and local extracellular stimulation, we investigated evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents (IPSC) in cultured rat hippocampal neurons grown with the sodium channel blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX) and under control conditions. We found that chronic TTX treatment significantly decreased the amplitude of evoked IPSC. This decrease was accompanied by an increase in the coefficient of variation of the above parameter, which is suggestive of a presynaptic mechanism. In contrast, no changes in the IPSC reversal potential or paired-pulse depression were observed in TTX-treated cultures. We conclude that alteration of GABA-ergic synaptic transmission contributes to the homeostatic plasticity in hippocampal neuronal networks, and this change is at least in part due to a presynaptic mechanism.Neirofiziologiya/Neurophysiology, Vol. 36, Nos. 5/6, pp. 432–437, September–December, 2004.This revised version was published online in April 2005 with a corrected cover date and copyright year.  相似文献
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This brief review is concerned with how human performance efficiency changes as a function of time of day. It presents an overview of some of the research paradigms and conceptual models that have been used to investigate circadian performance rhythms. The influence of homeostatic and circadian processes on performance regulation is discussed. The review also briefly presents recent mathematical models of alertness that have been used to predict cognitive performance. Related topics such as interindividual differences and the postlunch dip are presented. (Chronobiology International, 17(6), 719-732, 2000)  相似文献
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