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1.
Investigation of events committing cells to death revealed that a concealed NH2-terminal epitope of the pro-apoptotic protein Bak became exposed in vivo before apoptosis. This occurred after treatment of human Jurkat or CEM-C7A T-lymphoma cells with the mechanistically disparate agents staurosporine, etoposide or dexamethasone. The rapid, up to 10-fold increase in Bak-associated immunofluorescence was measured with epitope-specific monoclonal antibodies using flow cytometry and microscopy. In contrast, using a polyclonal antibody to Bak, immunofluorescence was detected both before and after treatment. There were no differences in Bak protein content nor in subcellular location before or after treatment. Immunofluorescence showed Bcl-xL and Bak were largely associated with mitochondria and in untreated cells they coimmunoprecipitated in the presence of nonioinic detergent. This association was significantly decreased after cell perturbation suggesting that Bcl-xL dissociation from Bak occurred on exposure of Bak's NH2 terminus. Multiple forms of Bak protein were observed by two dimensional electrophoresis but these were unchanged by inducers of apoptosis. This indicated that integration of cellular damage signals did not take place directly on the Bak protein. Release of proteins, including Bcl-xL, from Bak is suggested to be an important event in commitment to death.  相似文献
2.
Resistin release by human adipose tissue explants in primary culture   总被引:16,自引:0,他引:16  
Resistin, also known as Fizz3 or ADSF, is a protein found in murine adipose tissue and inflammatory lung exudates. The present studies found that resistin was released by explants of human adipose tissue but the release was quite variable ranging from 3 to 158 ng/g over 48 h. The release of resistin was 250% greater by explants of omental than by explants of human subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue. Resistin release by adipocytes was negligible as compared to that by the non-fat cells of adipose tissue. Leptin formation by adipocytes was 8-fold greater than its formation by the non-fat cells, while the formation of PAI-1 by adipocytes was 38% of that by the non-fat cells. The conversion of glucose to lactate as well as the formation of PGE(2) and IL-8 was approximately 15% of that by the non-fat cells. In contrast the release of IL-6 and IL-1beta by adipocytes was 4-7% of that by the non-fat cells while the formation of resistin and IL-10 by adipocytes was 2% of that by non-fat cells. The release of adiponectin by explants ranged from 1000 to 5000 ng/g over 48 h but did not correlate with that of resistin. The present data suggest that resistin release by explants of human adipose tissue in primary culture is largely derived from the non-fat cells present in the explants.  相似文献
3.
During bone loss, osteoblast population can be replaced by adipose tissue. This apparent reciprocal relationship between decreased bone density and increased fat formation can be explained by an imbalance in the production of bone-forming and fat-forming cells in the marrow cavity. Thus, osteoblast and adipocyte pathways seem more closely and inversely related. In the present study, we investigated the effects of dexamethasone (dex) and calcitriol [1,25(OH)(2)D(3)] on proliferation and differentiation of osteoblasts and adipocytes in rat bone marrow stromal cell cultures. Stromal cells were grown in primoculture in presence of dex and subcultivated in presence of dex and/or 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). Total cell proliferation, osteoblast and adipocyte-cells number, and -mRNA specific markers were used to study the effects of hormonal treatment on stromal cells. Total cell proliferation was stimulated by dex and inhibited by 1,25(OH)(2)D(3). Dex increased osteoblast and adipocyte cell population whereas calcitriol decreased bone-forming cell number and increased fat cell population. The presence of both hormones led to a strong decrease in osteoblastic cells and to a strong increase in adipocytic cell number. Dex induced mRNA osteoblastic markers expression like bone sialoprotein (BSP) and osteocalcin (OC) and an adipocyte marker expression, the fatty acid binding protein aP2. Calcitriol decreased the dex-induced BSP expression but stimulated slightly OC and aP2 mRNA. The effects of both hormones was to increase strongly OC and aP2 mRNA. These results support that, in rat bone marrow, adipocyte proliferation and differentiation are stimulated by glucocorticoids and calcitriol which act synergically, whereas osteoblastic cell proliferation and differentiation are increased by dex and inhibited by 1,25(OH)(2)D(3).  相似文献
4.
桑枝多糖分离纯化及其免疫作用的初步研究   总被引:12,自引:0,他引:12       下载免费PDF全文
采用水提醇沉法从中药材桑枝(Ramulus mori)中分离纯化多糖,并建立桑枝多糖的含量测定方法;采用碳粒廓清法和二硝基氟苯诱导小鼠迟发型变态反应试验法,观察桑枝多糖对地塞米松所致免疫低下模型小鼠免疫功能的影响。结果显示,用改良的苯酚一硫酸法测得桑枝中多糖含量为5.5%,提取物桑枝多糖(RMPS)中的含量为56.6%。多次水溶醇沉后,桑枝多糖含量可达70%以上;桑枝多糖可显著提高免疫低下小鼠的吞噬指数α,增强网状内皮细胞的吞噬功能和小鼠迟发型变态反应能力,增强T细胞活性。  相似文献
5.
The dental follicle is an ectomesenchymally derived connective tissue harboring precursor cells for the tooth supporting apparatus. In this study, we examined gene expression of freshly isolated human dental follicle cells during osteogenic differentiation in vitro. These plastic adherent fibroblastic cells express Notch-1, nestin and vimentin. We differentiated dental follicle cells with dexamethasone or insulin-based protocols into membrane-like structures containing mineralizing foci. An analysis of mineralized tissue with atomic force microscopy illustrated a bone and cementum-like structure. A real-time RT-PCR analysis was developed to investigate expression of typical osteoblast or cementoblast related genes during differentiation. Gene expressions of osteocalcin (OCN), bone morphogenic protein (BMP)-2 and nestin were increased during the both differentiation approaches. Our work demonstrates differentiation of dental follicle cells with an insulin-based protocol for the first time.  相似文献
6.
Heat-shock protein 90 complexes in resting and thrombin-activated platelets   总被引:11,自引:0,他引:11  
The orexins are peptides which were recently isolated from the rat hypothlamus. They play a role in energy homeostasis and regulation of feeding as well as in other functions such as the sleep-wake cycle. The involvement of glucocorticoids in stress processes as well as in body weight regulation is well known. In the present paper, we investigated the role of glucocorticoids on hypocretin (Hcrt)/orexin (OX) pathway in Sprague-Dawley rats. We confirmed by in situ hybridization that prepro-Hcrt/OX mRNA expression is restricted to the lateral hypothalamus area with extension to the perifornical nucleus and the posterior hypothalamic area. Lateral hypothalamic prepro-Hcrt/OX mRNA expression was decreased by 50% after adrenalectomy (99.8+/-5.0 vs 49.2+/-4.4 nCi/g, p<0.01). Peripheral glucocorticoid treatment (dexamethasone) restored its expression to normal levels (105.4+/-6.1 nCi/g). The present data provide direct evidence that Hcrt/OX expression in the lateral hypothalamus is modulated by the glucocorticoids status. As the Hcrt/Ox system is closely interactive with the corticotropin-releasing hormone and neuropeptide Y systems, we propose that hypocretin/orexins peptides constitute a very sensitive key relay for mediating both stress and feeding behavior.  相似文献
7.
Summary Recent studies have noted the presence of putative stem cells derived from the connective tissues associated with skeletal muscle, heart, and dermis. Long-term continuous cultures of these cells from each tissue demonstrated five distinct phenotypes of mesodermal origin, i.e. muscle, fat, cartilage, bone, and connective tissue. Clonal analysis was performed to determine whether these morphologies were the result of a mixed population of lineage-committed stem cells or the differentiation of pluripotent stem cells or both. Putative stem cells from four tissues (skeletal muscle, dermis, atria, and ventricle) were isolated and cloned. Combined, 1158 clones were generated from the initial cloning and two subsequent subclonings. Plating efficiency approximated 5.8%. Approximately 70% of the 1158 clones displayed a pure stellate morphology, while the remaining clones contained a mixture of stellate, chondrogenic- or osteogenic-like morphologies or both. When cultured in the presence of dexamethasone, cells from all clones differentiated in a time- and concentration-dependent manner into muscle, fat, cartilage, and bone. These results suggest that pluripotent mesenchymal stem cells are present within the connective tissues of skeletal muscle, dermis, and heart and may prove useful for studies concerning the regulation of stem cell differentiation, wound healing, and tissue restoration, replacement and repair.  相似文献
8.
Drug mediated induction of cytochrome P450 was studied in cultures of hepatocytes that had never been cultured in the presence of serum. Propylisopropylacetamide induced a five-fold increase in cytochrome P450, approximating in ovo induced levels, when triiodothyronine and/or dexamethasone were included in the culture medium. Insulin was apparently not required for this induction. Cytochrome P450, free of cytochrome oxidase, could be fully recovered from cell homogenates in a 8700g supernatant, by use of a buffer containing 0.2% Emulgen.  相似文献
9.
Yang L  Yang JB  Chen J  Yu GY  Zhou P  Lei L  Wang ZZ  Cy Chang C  Yang XY  Chang TY  Li BL 《Cell research》2004,14(4):315-323
In macrophages, the accumulation of cholesteryl esters synthesized by the activated acyl-coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase-1 (ACAT1) results in the foam cell formation, a hallmark of early atherosclerotic lesions. In this study, with the treatment of a glucocorticoid hormone dexamethasone (Dex), lipid staining results clearly showed the large accumulation of lipid droplets containing cholesteryl esters in THP-1-derived macrophages exposed to lower concentration of the oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL). More notably, when treated together with specific anti-ACAT inhibitors, the abundant cholesteryl ester accumulation was markedly diminished in THP-1-derived macrophages, confirming that ACAT is the key enzyme responsible for intracellular cholesteryl ester synthesis. RT-PCR and Western blot results indicated that Dex caused up-regulation of human ACAT1 expression at both the mRNA and protein levels in THP-1 and THP-l-derived macrophages. The luciferase activity assay demonstrated that Dex could enhance the activity of human ACAT1 gene P1 promoter, a major factor leading to the ACAT1 activation, in a cell-specific manner. Further experimental evidences showed that a glucocorticoid response element (GRE) located within human ACAT1 gene P1 promoter to response to the elevation of human ACAT1 gene expression by Dex could be functionally bound with glucocorticoid receptor (GR) proteins. These data supported the hypothesis that the clinical treatment with Dex, which increased the incidence of atherosclerosis, may in part due to enhancing the ACAT1 expression to promote the accumulation of cholesteryl esters during the macrophage-derived foam cell formation, an early stage of atherosclerosis.  相似文献
10.
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