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1.
The bacterial transposable element Tn5 was observed to undergo high-frequency sequence inversion when integrated into the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) genome. Deletion analysis of the IS50 elements through which this recombination event occurred demonstrated the absence of cis-acting signals involved in the inversion process. Several observations suggested an intimate association of the recombination mechanism with HSV-1 DNA replication, including the ability of the seven viral genes that are essential for HSV-1 DNA synthesis to mediate Tn5 inversion in the absence of any other viral functions. Comparable results were obtained by using duplicate copies of the L-S junction of the HSV-1 genome. Thus inversion of the L and S components of the HSV-1 genome during productive infection does not appear to be a site-specific process, but rather is the result of generalized recombination mediated by the complex of gene products that replicate the viral DNA.  相似文献
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Chemokines are thought to contribute to the cellular infiltrate characteristic of renal transplant rejection. We show that Met-RANTES, a chemokine receptor antagonist, suppresses recruitment of inflammatory cells into renal allografts. In a renal transplant model (Fisher RT1(lvl) rat kidney into Lewis RT1(l) rat) where no additional immune suppressant was used, Met-RANTES-treated animals showed a significant reduction in vascular injury score (16.10 +/- 5.20 vs. 62.67 +/- 18.64) and tubular damage score (15.70 +/- 5.22 vs. 33.00 +/- 6.44) relative to untreated animals. In a more severe rejection model (Brown-Norway RT1(n) rat kidney into Lewis RT1(1) rat), Met-RANTES significantly augmented low-dose cyclosporin A treatment to reduce all aspects of renal injury including interstitial inflammation (score 71.00 +/- 6.10 vs. 157.30 +/- 21.30). The majority of infiltrating cells in these models (60-70%) consisted of monocytes. Potential mechanisms of action of Met-RANTES were tested using monocyte attachment assays on microvascular endothelium under physiological flow conditions. Preexposure of microvascular endothelium to RANTES resulted in RANTES immobilization and RANTES-induced firm adhesion of monocytes only after prestimulation of the endothelium with IL-1beta. Met-RANTES completely inhibited this RANTES-mediated arrest. Thus, Met-RANTES may counter acute rejection by blocking leukocyte firm adhesion to inflamed endothelium.  相似文献
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Type 2 diabetes is a serious, genetically influenced disease for which no fully effective treatments are available. Identification of biochemical or regulatory pathways involved in the disease syndrome could lead to innovative therapeutic interventions. One way to identify such pathways is the genetic analysis of families with multiple affected members where disease predisposing genes are likely to be segregating. We undertook a genomewide screen (389-395 microsatellite markers) in samples of 835 white, 591 Mexican American, 229 black, and 128 Japanese American individuals collected as part of the American Diabetes Association's GENNID study. Multipoint nonparametric linkage analyses were performed with diabetes, and diabetes or impaired glucose homeostasis (IH). Linkage to diabetes or IH was detected near markers D5S1404 (map position 77 cM, LOD = 2.80), D12S853 (map position 82 cM, LOD = 2.81) and GATA172D05 (X-chromosome map position 130 cM, LOD = 2.99) in whites, near marker D3S2432 (map position 51 cM, LOD = 3.91) in Mexican Americans, and near marker D10S1412 (map position 14 cM, LOD = 2.39) in African Americans mainly collected in phase 1 of the study. Further analyses showed evidence for interactions between the chromosome 5 locus and region on chromosome 12 containing the MODY 3 gene (map position 132 cM) and between the X-chromosome locus and region near D12S853 (map position 82 cM) in whites. Although these results were not replicated in samples collected in phase 2 of the GENNID study, the region on chromosome 12 was replicated in samples from whites described by Bektas et al. (1999).  相似文献
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In a previous work, it was demonstrated that the bacterial transposon Tn5 is capable of undergoing sequence inversion via recombination between its duplicated IS50 elements when replicated by the herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) origin oris but not by the simian virus 40 (SV40) origin orisv. Further analysis of the latter phenomenon indicated that this lack of recombination was the result of topological constraints imposed by the SV40 minichromosome, such that recombination events could be readily detected in Tn5 derivatives in which the IS50 elements were arranged in a direct rather than inverted orientation. With this information, a second set of experiments were carried out to examine how the highly recombinogenic sequences which mediate the inversion of the long (L) and short (S) components of the HSV-1 genome behave in an SV40 minichromosome. Tandem copies of the L-S junction of the HSV-1 genome were observed to promote deletions in an SV40 shuttle plasmid at a frequency that was considerably greater than that of duplicated bacterial plasmid vector DNA. However, the presence of superinfecting HSV-1 did not enhance the frequency of these recombination events. These results support our previous findings that HSV-1 genome isomerization is mediated by a homologous recombination mechanism which is intimately associated with the act of viral DNA synthesis. Moreover, they demonstrate that the sequences which comprise the L-S junction appear to be inherently recombinogenic and, therefore, do not contain specific signals required for HSV-1 genome isomerization.  相似文献
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The present study compares the molecular mechanism by which thrombin, platelet-activating factor, and epinephrine induce platelet activation. Thrombin and platelet-activating factor induce an initial activation of phospholipase C, as measured by formation of 1,2-diacylglycerol and phosphatidic acid, during platelet shape change which is independent of and dissociated from metabolism of arachidonic acid. Phospholipase C activation and shape change are independent of extracellular Ca2+ and Mg2+. Formation of cyclooxygenase products occurs subsequent to the initial activation of phospholipase C and those metabolites are associated with platelet aggregation and further activation of phospholipase C. On the other hand, epinephrine is an unique platelet stimulus since it requires extracellular divalent cations and does not induce platelet shape change or activation of phospholipase C. Our results indicate that activation of phospholipase C may be a mechanism by which physiological agonists can activate platelets independently of extracellular divalent cations.  相似文献
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The vitamin E analog alpha-tocopheryl succinate (alpha-TOS) can induce apoptosis. We show that the proapoptotic activity of alpha-TOS in hematopoietic and cancer cell lines involves inhibition of protein kinase C (PKC), since phorbol myristyl acetate prevented alpha-TOS-triggered apoptosis. More selective effectors indicated that alpha-TOS reduced PKCalpha isotype activity by increasing protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity. The role of PKCalpha inhibition in alpha-TOS-induced apoptosis was confirmed using antisense oligonucleotides or PKCalpha overexpression. Gain- or loss-of-function bcl-2 mutants implied modulation of bcl-2 activity by PKC/PP2A as a mitochondrial target of alpha-TOS-induced proapoptotic signals. Structural analogs revealed that alpha-tocopheryl and succinyl moieties are both required for maximizing these effects. In mice with colon cancer xenografts, alpha-TOS suppressed tumor growth by 80%. This epitomizes cancer cell killing by a pharmacologically relevant compound without known side effects.  相似文献
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