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1.
B Falgout  M Pethel  Y M Zhang    C J Lai 《Journal of virology》1991,65(5):2467-2475
The cleavages at the junctions of the flavivirus nonstructural (NS) proteins NS2A/NS2B, NS2B/NS3, NS3/NS4A, and NS4B/NS5 share an amino acid sequence motif and are presumably catalyzed by a virus-encoded protease. We constructed recombinant vaccinia viruses expressing various portions of the NS region of the dengue virus type 4 polyprotein. By analyzing immune precipitates of 35S-labeled lysates of recombinant virus-infected cells, we could monitor the NS2A/NS2B, NS2B/NS3, and NS3/NS4A cleavages. A polyprotein composed of NS2A, NS2B, and the N-terminal 184 amino acids of NS3 was cleaved at the NS2A/NS2B and NS2B/NS3 junctions, whereas a similar polyprotein containing only the first 77 amino acids of NS3 was not cleaved. This finding is consistent with the proposal that the N-terminal 180 amino acids of NS3 constitute a protease domain. Polyproteins containing NS2A and NS3 with large in-frame deletions of NS2B were not cleaved at the NS2A/NS2B or NS2B/NS3 junctions. Coinfection with a recombinant expressing NS2B complemented these NS2B deletions for NS2B/NS3 cleavage and probably also for NS2A/NS2B cleavage. Thus, NS2B is also required for the NS2A/NS2B and NS2B/NS3 cleavages and can act in trans. Other experiments showed that NS2B was needed, apparently in cis, for NS3/NS4A cleavage and for a series of internal cleavages in NS3. Indirect evidence that NS3 can also act in trans was obtained. Models are discussed for a two-component protease activity requiring both NS2B and NS3.  相似文献
2.
To identify human proteins that bind to the Smac and caspase-9 binding pocket on the baculoviral inhibitor of apoptosis protein (IAP) repeat 3 (BIR3) domain of human XIAP, we used BIR3 as an affinity reagent, followed by elution with the BIR3 binding peptide AVPIA, microsequencing, and mass spectrometry. The mature serine protease Omi (also known as HtrA2) was identified as a mitochondrial direct BIR3-binding protein and a caspase activator. Like mature Smac (also known as Diablo), mature Omi contains a conserved IAP-binding motif (AVPS) at its N terminus, which is exposed after processing of its N-terminal mitochondrial targeting sequence upon import into the mitochondria. Mature Omi is released together with mature Smac from the mitochondria into the cytosol upon disruption of the outer mitochondrial membrane during apoptosis. Finally, mature Omi can induce apoptosis in human cells in a caspase-independent manner through its protease activity and in a caspase-dependent manner via its ability to disrupt caspase-IAP interaction. Our results provide clear evidence for the involvement of a mitochondrial serine protease in the apoptotic pathway, emphasizing the critical role of the mitochondria in cell death.  相似文献
3.
Filamentous tau aggregates are hallmarks of tauopathies, e.g., frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/parkinsonism-dementia complex (ALS/PDC). Since FTDP-17 tau gene mutations alter levels/functions of tau, we overexpressed the smallest human tau isoform in the CNS of transgenic (Tg) mice to model tauopathies. These mice acquired age-dependent CNS pathology similarto FTDP-17 and ALS/PDC, including insoluble, hyperphosphorylated tau and argyrophilic intraneuronal inclusions formed by tau-immunoreactive filaments. Inclusions were present in cortical and brainstem neurons but were most abundant in spinal cord neurons, where they were associated with axon degeneration, diminished microtubules (MTs), and reduced axonal transport in ventral roots, as well as spinal cord gliosis and motor weakness. These Tg mice recapitulate key features of tauopathies and provide models for elucidating mechanisms underlying diverse tauopathies, including Alzheimer's disease (AD).  相似文献
4.
alpha-Synucleinopathies are neurodegenerative disorders that range pathologically from the demise of select groups of nuclei to pervasive degeneration throughout the neuraxis. Although mounting evidence suggests that alpha-synuclein lesions lead to neurodegeneration, this remains controversial. To explore this issue, we generated transgenic mice expressing wild-type and A53T human alpha-synuclein in CNS neurons. Mice expressing mutant, but not wild-type, alpha-synuclein developed a severe and complex motor impairment leading to paralysis and death. These animals developed age-dependent intracytoplasmic neuronal alpha-synuclein inclusions paralleling disease onset, and the alpha-synuclein inclusions recapitulated features of human counterparts. Moreover, immunoelectron microscopy revealed that the alpha-synuclein inclusions contained 10-16 nm wide fibrils similar to human pathological inclusions. These mice demonstrate that A53T alpha-synuclein leads to the formation of toxic filamentous alpha-synuclein neuronal inclusions that cause neurodegeneration.  相似文献
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Recent studies suggest that haplotypes are arranged into discrete blocklike structures throughout the human genome. Here, we present an alternative haplotype block definition that assumes no recombination within each block but allows for recombination between blocks, and we use it to study the combined effects of demographic history and various population genetic parameters on haplotype block characteristics. Through extensive coalescent simulations and analysis of published haplotype data on chromosome 21, we find that (1) the combined effects of population demographic history, recombination, and mutation dictate haplotype block characteristics and (2) haplotype blocks can arise in the absence of recombination hot spots. Finally, we provide practical guidelines for designing and interpreting studies investigating haplotype block structure.  相似文献
7.
Transient and persistent dendritic spines in the neocortex in vivo   总被引:23,自引:0,他引:23  
Dendritic spines were imaged over days to months in the apical tufts of neocortical pyramidal neurons (layers 5 and 2/3) in vivo. A fraction of thin spines appeared and disappeared over a few days, while most thick spines persisted for months. In the somatosensory cortex, from postnatal day (PND) 16 to PND 25 spine retractions exceeded additions, resulting in a net loss of spines. The fraction of persistent spines (lifetime > or = 8 days) grew gradually during development and into adulthood (PND 16-25, 35%; PND 35-80, 54%; PND 80-120, 66%; PND 175-225, 73%), providing evidence that synaptic circuits continue to stabilize even in the adult brain, long after the closure of known critical periods. In 6-month-old mice, spines turn over more slowly in visual compared to somatosensory cortex, possibly reflecting differences in the capacity for experience-dependent plasticity in these brain regions.  相似文献
8.
Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) plays a key role in terminating neurotransmission at cholinergic synapses. AChE is also found in tissues devoid of cholinergic responses, indicating potential functions beyond neurotransmission. It has been suggested that AChE may participate in development, differentiation, and pathogenic processes such as Alzheimer's disease and tumorigenesis. We examined AChE expression in a number of cell lines upon induction of apoptosis by various stimuli. AChE is induced in all apoptotic cells examined as determined by cytochemical staining, immunological analysis, affinity chromatography purification, and molecular cloning. The AChE protein was found in the cytoplasm at the initiation of apoptosis and then in the nucleus or apoptotic bodies upon commitment to cell death. Sequence analysis revealed that AChE expressed in apoptotic cells is identical to the synapse type AChE. Pharmacological inhibitors of AChE prevented apoptosis. Furthermore, blocking the expression of AChE with antisense inhibited apoptosis. Therefore, our studies demonstrate that AChE is potentially a marker and a regulator of apoptosis.  相似文献
9.
A molecular epidemiology study was conducted among more than 100 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) subtype C seropositive intravenous drug users (IDUs) from China. Genotyping based on the envelope C2V3 coding region revealed the highest homology of the most prevalent virus strains circulating throughout China to subtype C sequences of Indian origin. Based on these results, a virtually full-length genome representing the most prevalent class of clade C strains circulating throughout China was directly amplified from peripheral blood mononuclear cells of a selected HIV-infected IDU and subcloned. Sequence analysis identified a mosaic structure, suggesting extensive intersubtype recombination events between genomes of the prevalent clade C and (B')-subtype Thai virus strains of that geographic region. Recombinant Identification Program analysis and phylogenetic bootstrapping suggested that there were 10 breakpoints (i) in the gag-pol coding region, (ii) in vpr and at the 3' end of the vpu gene, and (iii) in the nef open reading frame. (B')-sequences therefore include (i) several insertions in the gag-pol coding region; (ii) 3'-vpr, the complete vpu gene, and the first exons of tat and rev; and (iii) the 5' half of the nef gene. Breakpoints located in the vpr/vpu coding region as well as in the nef gene of 97cn54 were found at almost identical positions of all subtype C strains isolated from IDUs living in different areas of China, suggesting a common ancestor for the C/B' recombinant strains. More than 50% of well-defined subtype B-derived cytotoxic T-lymphocyte epitopes within Gag and Pol and 10% of the known epitopes in Env were found to exactly match sequences within in this clade C/B' chimeric reference strain. These results may substantially facilitate a biological comparison of clade C-derived reference strains as well as the generation of useful reagents supporting vaccine-related efforts in China.  相似文献
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