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A family of unusual DNA structures has been discovered in segments with predominantly purines in one strand (pur.pyr sequences). These sequences are overrepresented in eukaryotic DNA and have been mapped near genes and recombination hot spots. When cloned into recombinant plasmids, many pur.pyr sequences are reactive to chemical and enzymic probes that are generally specific for single-stranded DNA. An intramolecular triplex is adopted by mirror repeats of G's and A's. Other non-B DNA structures adopted by similar sequences remain to be fully clarified but may be a family of related conformations. It is likely that these unorthodox structures play an important role in the function of the eukaryotic genome.  相似文献
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In Streptococcus lactis ML3, the lactose plasmid (pSK08) forms cointegrates with a conjugal plasmid (pRS01). It has been proposed that cointegration is mediated by insertion sequences (IS) present on pSK08 (D. G. Anderson and L.L. McKay, J. Bacteriol. 158:954-962, 1984). We examined the junction regions of the cointegrate pPW2 and the corresponding regions of pSK08 (donor) and pRS01 (target) and identified a new IS element on pSK08 (ISS1S) which was involved in and duplicated during formation of pPW2. ISS1S was 808 base pairs (bp) in size, had 18-bp inverted repeats (GGTTCTGTTGCAAAGTTT) at its ends, contained a single long open reading frame encoding a putative protein of 226 amino acids, and generated 8-bp direct repeats of target DNA during cointegrate formation. An iso-IS element, ISS1T, which is duplicated in some other cointegrate plasmids, was also found on pSK08. ISS1T was also 808 bp in size and was identical to ISS1S in sequence except for 4 bp, none of which altered the inverted repeats or amino acid sequence of the open reading frame. Comparison of ISS1 with gram-negative IS26 revealed strong homologies in size (820 bp), sequence of inverted repeats (GGCACTGTTGCAAA), size of direct repeats generated after cointegration (8 bp), and number, size, and amino acid sequence (44.5% identical) of the open reading of frame.  相似文献
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The ability of oligopyrimidines to inhibit, through triple helix formation, the specific protein-DNA interactions of the EcoRI restriction and modification enzymes (EcoRI and MEcoRI) with their recognition sequence (GAATTC) was studied. The oligonucleotides (CTT)4 and (CTT)8 formed triplexes in plasmids at (GAA)n repeats containing EcoRI sites. Cleavage and methylation of EcoRI sites within these sequences were specifically inhibited by the oligonucleotides, whereas an EcoRI site adjacent to a (GAA)n sequence was inhibited much less. Also, other EcoRI sites within the plasmid, or in exogenously added lambda DNA, were not inhibited. These results demonstrate the potential of using triplex-forming oligonucleotides to block protein-DNA interactions at specific sites, and thus this technique may be useful in chromosome mapping and in the modulation of gene expression.  相似文献
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In Escherichia coli K-12 mutants which had a new nalidixic acid resistance mutation at about 82 min on the chromosome map, cell growth was resistant to or hypersusceptible to nalidixic acid, oxolinic acid, piromidic acid, pipemidic acid, and novobiocin. Deoxyribonucleic acid gyrase activity as tested by supercoiling of lambda phage deoxyribonucleic acid inside the mutants was similarly resistant or hypersusceptible to the compounds. The drug concentrations required for gyrase inhibition were much higher than those for cell growth inhibition but similar to those for inhibition of lambda phage multiplication. Transduction analysis with lambda phages carrying the chromosomal fragment of the tnaA-gyrB region suggested that one of the mutations, nal-31, was located on the gyrB gene.  相似文献
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Analysis of the chromatin structure of minichromosomes containing the binding site for the yeast alpha 2 repressor protein by indirect end-labeling has previously indicated that nucleosomes are stably positioned over sequences adjacent to the alpha 2 operator in the presence of the repressor. Development of a primer extension assay for nucleosome position now allows a more detailed examination of the location of these nucleosomes relative to the operator sequence, and indicates that nucleosomes are precisely and stably positioned both translationally and rotationally over sequences adjoining the operator. In addition, this assay enables analysis of the chromatin structure of single copy, genomic sequences. Chromatin structures determined for two genes regulated by alpha 2, STE6 and BAR1, are consistent with nucleosomes precisely positioned downstream of the operator sequence, incorporating promoter elements, in alpha cells but not in a-cells. The location of these nucleosomes relative to the operator sequence is highly analogous to that observed in the minichromosome. The stability of the nucleosomes adjacent to the operator together with the precision of their location suggests that they may play a role in repression of a specific gene expression by alpha 2. Further, the primer extension assay allows a comparison of the structure of these positioned nucleosomes formed in vivo to that previously described for core particles reconstituted in vitro.  相似文献
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We constructed a full-length cDNA coding for 3-methylcholanthrene-inducible rat liver cytochrome P-450MC by the method of Okayama and Berg. The isolated clone pAU157 contained the cDNA insert of 2.7 kb in length. Sequence analysis of the cDNA insert revealed that the amino acid sequence of cytochrome P-450MC was composed of 523 amino acid residues, including the initial 22 N-terminal amino acids whose sequence was determined with the purified protein. The primary structure was found to contain two highly conserved regions as pointed out from comparisons of the reported amino acid sequences of cytochrome P-450 species. The predicted molecular weight of the apoprotein was 59,300 daltons. Therefore, we concluded that the amino acid sequence determined here is for cytochrome P-450MC, probably corresponding to cytochrome P-450c.  相似文献
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The tuf gene, which encodes the elongation factor Tu (EF-Tu) of Thermus thermophilus HB8, and its flanking regions were cloned and sequenced. The gene encoding EF-G was found upstream of the 5' end of the tuf gene. The tuf gene of T. thermophilus HB8 had a very high G + C content and 84.5% of the third base in codon usage was either G or C. The deduced primary structure of the EF-Tu was composed of 405 amino acid residues with a Mr = 44658. A comparison of the amino acid sequence of EF-Tu from T. thermophilus HB8 with those of Escherichia coli and Saccharomyces cerevisiae mitochondria showed a very high sequence homology (65-70%). Two Cys residues out of the three found in E. coli EF-Tu had been replaced with Val in T. thermophilus HB8 EF-Tu. An extra amino acid sequence of ten residues, consisting predominantly of basic amino acids (Met-182-Gly-191), which does not occur in EF-Tu of E. coli, was found in T. thermophilus HB8.  相似文献
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