首页 | 本学科首页   官方微博 | 高级检索  
文章检索
  按 检索   检索词:      
出版年份:   被引次数:   他引次数: 提示:输入*表示无穷大
  收费全文   11篇
  1995年   2篇
  1994年   1篇
  1990年   5篇
  1989年   2篇
  1982年   1篇
排序方式: 共有11条查询结果,搜索用时 62 毫秒
1.
The hypertrophic Lake Zwemlust, a small water body used as a swimming pool, was characterized by algal blooms in summer, reducing the Secchi disk transparency to less than 0.3 m. Since in The Netherlands a Secchi disk transparency of 1 m is obligatory for swimming waters, corrective measures were called for to improve the light climate of the lake. In March, 1987, as an experiment, the lake was drained by pumping out the water to facilitate fish elimination. Planktivorous and benthivorous fish species, which were predominant, were removed by seine- and electro-fishing. After the lake had refilled by seepage it was restocked by a new simple fish community comprising pike (Esox lucius) and rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus) only. Stacks of willow twigs (Salix) and macrophytes (roots ofNuphar lutea and seedlings ofChara globularis) were introduced into the lake as spawning grounds and refuges for the pike against cannibalism and as shelter for the zooplankton. The effects of this food web manipulation on the light climate, phytoplankton, zooplankton, fish, macrophytes, macrofauna and on the nutrient concentrations were monitored during 1987 and 1988. In summer 1987, despite of high nutrient concentrations, the phytoplankton density was low, due to control by zooplankton, causing a Secchi disk transparency of 2.5 m, the maximum depth. Chlorophyll-a concentrations were low (<5 g Chl.l–1), blooms of cyanobacteria did not occur and a shift from rotifers to cladocerans took place. In 1988, however, also some negative effects were noticed. Macrophytes and filamentous green algae reached a much higher biomass (50–60% cover of the lake bottom) than in 1987; some species, growing through the entire water column, interfered with the lake's recreational use. Associated with the macro-vegetation and possibly with the absence of larger cyprinids, the diet of which also comprises snails, a large scale development of the snail population, among themLymnaea peregra var.ovata took place. This species is known to act as an intermediate host of the bird-parasitizing trematodeTrichobilharzia ocellata, the cercariae of which cause an itching sensation at the spot of penetration of the human skin, accompanied by rash (schistosome dermatitis or swimmers' itch); in July, 1988, about 40% of the bathers complained about this itching. A positive effect of the macrophytes and filamentous green algae was the high uptake of nitrogen, resulting in a low nitrogen concentration in the lake and growth limitation of the phytoplankton population by nitrogen in the summer of 1988. In 1988 the cladocerans were abundant in April only; and unlike in 1987, in the summer of 1988 there was a shift from cladocerans to rotifers. Therefore, only in early spring (April) zooplankton grazing controlled phytoplankton growth and in summer nitrogen limitation was the major controlling factor, keeping chlorophyll-a concentrations low.  相似文献
2.
Lake Breukeleveen (180 ha, mean depth 1.45 m), a compartment of the eutrophic Loosdrecht lakes system, was selected to study the effects of whole-lake foodweb manipulation on a large scale. In Lake Loosdrecht (dominated by filamentous cyanobacteria), due to water management measures taken from 1970–1984 (sewerage systems, dephosphorization) the external P load has been reduced from 1.2 g m−2 y−1 to 0.35 g m−2 y−1. The water transparency (Secchi-depthca. 30 cm), however, has not improved. The aim of the food-web manipulation in Lake Breukeleveen was not only to improve the light climate of the lake, but also to study if the successfull effects observed in small lakes (a few ha) can be upscaled. In March 1989 the standing crop of planktivorous and bentivorous fish populations was reduced by intensive fishery, fromca. 150 kg ha−1 toca. 57 kg ha−1. The lake was made unaccessible to fish migrating from the other lakes and it was stocked with large-sized daphnids and 0+ pike. However, water transparency did not increase in the following summer and autumn 1989, which is in contrast with great improvement in the light conditions previously observed in smaller lakes. The main explanations for the negative outcome in Lake Breukeleveen are: 1) the rapid increase of the planktivorous fish biomass and carnivorous cladocerans, predating on the zooplankton community; 2) suppression of the large daphnids by the high concentrations of filamentous cyanobacteria; 3) high turbidity of the lake due to resuspension of bottom material induced by wind, unlike in smaller lakes, and thus inability of submerged macrophytes to develop and to stabilize the ecosystem.  相似文献
3.
Whole-lake food-web manipulation was carried out in the hypertrophic Lake Zwemlust (The Netherlands), with the aim of studying the effects on the lake's trophic status and to gain an insight into complex interactions among lake communities. Before manipulation this small (1.5 ha) and shallow (1.5 m) lake was characterized byMicrocystis blooms in summer and high chlorophyll-a concentrations were common (ca. 250 μg 1−1). In March 1987 the planktivorous and benthivorous fish species in the lake were completely removed (ca. 1000 kg ha−1), a new simple fish community (pike and rudd) was introduced and artificial refuges were created. The effects of this manipulation on the light climate, nutrient concentrations, phytoplankton, zooplankton, fish, macrophytes, and macrofauna were monitored during 1987, 1988 and 1989. Community interactions were investigated in phytoplankton bioassays and zooplankton grazing experiments. After the manipulation, despite the still high P and N loads to the lake (ca. 2.2 g P m−2 y−1 andca. 5.3 g N m−2 y−1), the phytoplankton density was low (Chl-a<5μg l−1), due to control by large-sized zooplankton in spring and N-limitation in summer and autumn. A marked increase in the abundance of macrophytes and filamentous green algae in 1988 and 1989, as well as N loss due to denitrification, contributed to the N limitation of the phytoplankton. Before manipulation no submerged macro-vegetation was present but in 1988, the second year after manipulation, about 50% of the lake bottom was covered by macrophytes increasing to 80% in 1989. This led to substantial accumulation of both N and P, namely 76% and 73% respectively of the total nutrients in the lake in particulate matter. Undesirable features of the increase in macrophytes were: 1) direct nuisance to swimmers; and, 2) the large scale development of snails, especiallyL. peregra, which may harbour the parasite causing ‘swimmers' itch’. But harvesting of only about 3% of the total macrophyte biomass from the swimmers' area, twice a year, reduced the nuisance for swimmers without adversely affecting the water clarity.  相似文献
4.
Species and size composition of fish communities in shallow stagnant waters appear to be associated with the type, abundance and pattern of the vegetation. Man-induced impacts as eutrophication, and suppression of vegetation for reasons of water quantity management or angling pleasure may induce irreversible changes in the aquatic ecosystem. Water quality management should aim at restoring former pike habitat. Submerged weeds are important to that effect. These habitats are characterized by relatively low densities of fish stocks. Stocking of bream and carp interferes strongly with these objectives. With respect to fish stocks, interests of water quality and fishery management may be opposed.  相似文献
5.
The feasibility of biomanipulation is related particularly to reducing the production and recruitment of planktivorous fish stocks. For assessing the level of predation needed to suppress planktivorous fish stocks, the relation between fish P and B, on one hand, and nutrient concentration on the other were analyzed. The carrying capacity of shallow lakes in terms of biomass is related to the total phosphorus concentration and nature of the lake bottom substrate. The production of planktivorous fish was 60–80% of the maximum carrying capacity. It is argued that aquatic vegetation and northern pike are effective tools to maintain water quality, but these are limited by the maximum nutrient concentration aquatic vegetation can sustain.  相似文献
6.
Impact of cyprinids on zooplankton and algae in ten drainable ponds   总被引:4,自引:4,他引:0  
To study the impact of cyprinids on algae, zooplankton and physical and chemical water quality, ten drainable ponds of 0.1 ha (depth 1.3 m) were each divided into two equal parts. One half of each pond was stocked with 0 + cyprinids (bream, carp and roach of 10–15 mm), the other was free of fish. The average biomass of the 0 + fish at draining of the ponds was 466 kg ha–1, to which carp contributed about 80%.The fish and non-fish compartments showed significant differences. In the non-fish compartments the density of Daphnia hyalina was 10–30 ind. l–1 and that of Daphnia magna 2–4 ind. l-–1, whereas in the fish compartments densities were c. 1 ind. l–1. Cyclopoid copepods and Bosmina longirostris, however, showed higher densities in the fish compartments. The composition of algae in the two compartments differed only slightly, but the densities were lower in the non-fish compartments. The significant difference in turbidity was probably caused by resuspension of sediment by carp. No significant difference in nutrient concentration between the compartments was found.  相似文献
7.
Development of fish communities in lakes after biomanipulation   总被引:2,自引:0,他引:2  
Biomanipulation measures in the Netherlands are usually a combination of a drastic fish stock reduction and an introduction of pike fingerlings. In three small shallow lakes (Noorddiep, Bleiswijkse Zoom and Zwemlust) these measures resulted in a clear water state and the development of macrophytes. After the measures the fish community developed differently because of the new physical and biological conditions. Results of lake Noorddiep and lake Bleiswijkse Zoom showed that the fish community became more divers. Bream and carp became less dominant and were partly replaced by roach and perch. The importance of the main predator pike-perch was strongly reduced and replaced by pike and perch. The share of piscivorous fish in the total fish stock increased at all sites. The recruitment of young-of-the-year was similar or even higher in the clear overgrown areas than in the turbid water before the measures, but the recruitment of young-of-the-year to older fish differed between the species. Predation by pike and perch could not control the young-of-the-year cyprinids, but their predation may have contributed to the shift from bream to roach, because of selective predation on bream in the open water, while roach was hiding in the vegetation. The macrophytes provide new refugia and feeding conditions that favour roach and perch, but offer relatively poor survival conditions for bream and carp.  相似文献
8.
Biomanipulation was carried out in order to improve the water quality of the small hypertrophic Lake Zwemlust (1.5 ha; mean depth 1.5 m). In March 1987 the lake was drained to facilitate the elimination of fish. Fish populations were dominated by planktivorous and benthivorous species (total stock c. 1500 kg) and were collected by seine- and electro-fishing. The lake was subsequently re-stocked with 1500 northern pike fingerlings (Esox lucius L.) and a low density of adult rudd (Scardinius erythrophthalmus). The offspring of the rudd served as food for the predator pike. Stacks of Salix twigs, roots of Nuphar lutea and plantlets of Chara globularis were brought in as refuge and spawning grounds for the pike, as well as shelter for the zooplankton.The impact of this biomanipulation on the light penetration, phytoplankton density, macrophytes, zooplankton and fish communities and on nutrient concentrations was monitored from March 1987 onwards. This paper presents the results in the first year after biomanipulation.The abundance of phytoplankton in the first summer (1987) after this biomanipulation was very low, and consequently accompanied by increase of Secchi-disc transparency and drastic decline of chlorophyll a concentration.The submerged vegetation remained scarce, with only 5 % of the bottom covered by macrophytes at the end of the season.Zooplankters became more abundant and there was a shift from rotifers to cladocerans, comprised mainly of Daphnia and Bosmina species, the former including at least 3 species.The offspring of the stocked rudd was present in the lake from the end of August 1987. Only 19% of the stocked pike survived the first year.Bioassays and experiments with zooplankton community grazing showed that the grazing pressure imposed by the zooplankton community was able to keep chlorophyll a concentrations and algal abundance to low levels, even in the presence of very high concentrations of inorganic N and P. The total nutrient level increased after biomanipulation, probably due to increased release from the sediment by bioturbation, the biomass of chironomids being high.At the end of 1987 Lake Zwemlust was still in an unstable stage. A new fish population dominated by piscivores, intended to control the planktivorous and benthivorous fish, and the submerged macrophytes did not yet stabilize.  相似文献
9.
In 1990 an experiment started in the large and shallow lake Wolderwijd (2700 ha, mean depth 1.5 m) to improve the water quality. About 75% of the fish stock was removed (425 000 kg fish). The fish was mainly composed of bream and roach. In May 600000 young pikes (3–4 cm) were introduced.In May 1991 the water became very clear (Secchi depth 1.8 m) during a spring bloom of large Daphnia. Then the grazing by zooplankton was eight times higher than the primary production of algae and the total suspended matter concentration became very low. Compared to the situation before the fish reduction, the grazing had increased only slightly, while the primary production had decreased significantly in early spring. The fish stock reduction might have contributed to the reduction in primary production by a reduced internal nutrient load. The clear water period lasted six weeks. Daphnia disappeared in July due to food limitation, the algal biomass increased and the Secchi depth became 50 cm. Daphnia did not recover during summer, due to predation that was not caused by 0 + fish but by the mysid shrimp Neomysis integer. Neomysis could develop abundantly, because of the reduced biomass of the predator perch. The production of young fish had been low because of the cold spring weather. The cold weather was probably also responsible for the slow increase in density of macrophytes. After 1991, perch probably can control Neomysis. Due to lack of spawning places and shelter for 0 + pike, pike was probably not able to control the production of 0 + fish. In a lake of this scale, it will not be easy to get more than 50% coverage of macrophytes, which seems necessary to keep the algal biomass low by nutrient competition. Therefore, we expect also in the future a decrease in transparency in the summer. Locally, especially near Characeae, the water might stay clear.  相似文献
10.
M. P. Grimm 《Aquatic Ecology》1982,16(2-3):285-286
Summary In order to evaluate the stocking of artificially propagated northern pike (Esox lucius L.) fingerlings (4–6 cm), of which 1–1,5 million/year are produced by the Organization for the Improvement of Inland Fisheries (O.V.B.), the composition and abundance of northern pike populations in four shallow waters were monitored during a 5–8 year period. The specimens stocked were marked by amputation of a ventral fin. At the end of their first growing season the numbers of these and of those that were naturally reproduced (O+ pike) as well as the abundance of larger specimens were estimated using mark-recapture methods. Sampling was executed by electrofishing, seining and (incidentally) trawling. The O+ pike was caught quantitively by electrofishing.Based on the distribution pattern observed during the sampling period, four age/length classes were distinguished. (1) O+ pike, caught almost without exeption within emerged or submerged vegetation; (2) O+<pike<41 cm (forklength) found within submerged, floating and ingrowing vegetation; (3) 41 cm<pike<54 cm caught within or in the vicinity of vegetated areas; (4) pike>54 cm, the majority of which — in two experimental waters — were found outside the vegetation. Within the length range of 0–54 cm, the biomass of O+ pike and of 0–41 cm pike appeared to be negatively correlated with those of larger pike. The standing stock<54 cm pike was found to be determined by the amount of aquatic vegetation. This phenomenon was still more pronounced when the different habitat preferences of the various length classes were taken into account (GRIMM, 1981).Based on the negative correlations it is concluded that the biomass of 0–41 cm pike/ha preferred habitat is determined by the biomass of larger northern pike and that the stocking of fingerlings does not influence this relationship.In one of the experimental waters a high mortality occurred due to the severe winter of 1978/–1979, causing a decline of at least 50% of the abundance of legal-sized (48 cm) northern pike. In the following year (1979) the numbers and biomass of the O+ class amounted to 10 and 5 times the previously recorded highest values, respectively. In 1980 the O+ class was virtually absent. As a result of these extreme values the negative correlation was found to be exponential, indicating a density-dependent relationship between smaller (0–41 cm) and larger (41–54 cm) pike. It was shown that, in the 3 years fingerlings were stocked, the abundance of 0–41 cm pike (kg/ha preferred habitat) relative to the abundance of larger pike, did not differ from that in the 4 years in which fingerlings were not introduced.In the two years that pike-fingerlings were introduced in the beginning of May in this water, the frequency of occurrence of O+ pike, originally stocked as fingerlings, amounted to ca. 80%. In the year stocking took place at the end of May, introduced pike constituted only ca. 6% of the O+ population. These high and low frequencies are explained by the fact that the first and last introduced specimens are either ahead of or behind the ecological time table: they are on the average larger or smaller then the naturally reproduced specimens.Intraspecific predation within the O-class can be a factor of importance (GRIMM, 1981). Therefore, it is supposed that the frequency of occurrence reflects the number of naturally reproduced pike that were replaced by the stocked ones.  相似文献
设为首页 | 免责声明 | 关于勤云 | 加入收藏

Copyright©北京勤云科技发展有限公司  京ICP备09084417号