首页 | 本学科首页   官方微博 | 高级检索  
文章检索
  按 检索   检索词:      
出版年份:   被引次数:   他引次数: 提示:输入*表示无穷大
  收费全文   28篇
  完全免费   7篇
  2019年   1篇
  2014年   2篇
  2013年   2篇
  2012年   2篇
  2008年   1篇
  2007年   1篇
  2005年   1篇
  2003年   1篇
  2001年   7篇
  2000年   3篇
  1999年   5篇
  1998年   1篇
  1997年   2篇
  1996年   2篇
  1995年   2篇
  1988年   1篇
  1984年   1篇
排序方式: 共有35条查询结果,搜索用时 31 毫秒
1.
Synthetic DNA delivery systems   总被引:42,自引:0,他引:42  
The ability to safely and efficiently transfer foreign DNA into cells is a fundamental goal in biotechnology. Toward this end, rapid advances have recently been made in our understanding of mechanisms for DNA stability and transport within cells. Current synthetic DNA delivery systems are versatile and safe, but substantially less efficient than viruses. Indeed, most current systems address only one of the obstacles to DNA delivery by enhancing DNA uptake. In fact, the effectiveness of gene expression is also dependent on several additional factors, including the release of intracellular DNA, stability of DNA in the cytoplasm, unpackaging of the DNA-vector complex, and the targeting of DNA to the nucleus. Delivery systems of the future must fully accommodate all these processes to effectively shepherd DNA across the plasma membrane, through the hostile intracellular environment, and into the nucleus.  相似文献
2.
Efficient DNA transfection is critical for biological research and new clinical therapies, but the mechanisms responsible for DNA uptake are unknown. Current nonviral transfection methods, empirically designed to maximize DNA complexation and/or membrane fusion, are amenable to enhancement by a variety of chemicals. These chemicals include particulates, lipids, and polymer complexes that optimize DNA complexation/condensation, membrane fusion, endosomal release, or nuclear targeting, which are the presumed barriers to gene delivery. Most chemical enhancements produce a moderate increase in gene delivery and a limited increase in gene expression. As a result, the efficiency of transfection and level of gene expression after nonviral DNA delivery remain low, suggesting the existence of additional unidentified barriers. Here, we tested the hypothesis that DNA transfection efficiency is limited by a simple physical barrier: low DNA concentration at the cell surface. We used dense silica nanoparticles to concentrate DNA-vector (i.e. DNA-transfection reagent) complexes at the surface of cell monolayers; manipulations that increased complex concentration at the cell surface enhanced transfection efficiency by up to 8.5-fold over the best commercially available transfection reagents. We predict that manipulations aimed at optimizing DNA complexation or membrane fusion have a fundamental physical limit; new methods designed to increase transfection efficiency must increase DNA concentration at the target cell surface without adding to the toxicity.  相似文献
3.
Control of organ asymmetry in flowers of Antirrhinum   总被引:17,自引:0,他引:17  
Luo D  Carpenter R  Copsey L  Vincent C  Clark J  Coen E 《Cell》1999,99(4):367-376
Organ asymmetry is thought to have evolved many times independently in plants. In Antirrhinum, asymmetry of the flower and its component organs requires cyc and dich gene activity. We show that, like cyc, the dich gene encodes a product belonging to the TCP family of DNA-binding proteins that is first expressed in the dorsal domain of early floral meristems. However, whereas cyc continues to be expressed throughout dorsal regions, expression of dich eventually becomes restricted to the most dorsal half of each dorsal petal. This correlates with the effects of dich mutations and ectopic cyc expression on petal shape, providing an indication that plant organ asymmetry can reflect subdomains of gene activity. Taken together, the results indicate that plant organ asymmetry can arise through a series of steps during which early asymmetry in the developing meristem is progressively built upon.  相似文献
4.
Primary hepatocyte cultures from duck hepatitis B virus (DHBV) infected ducklings were used to evaluate the antiviral activity of purine and pyrimidine 2',3'-dideoxynucleosides. The purine 2',3'-dideoxynucleosides were very effective inhibitors of hepadnavirus replication, whereas the pyrimidine dideoxynucleosides were not. 2',3'-Dideoxyguanosine and 2,6-diaminopurine 2',3'-dideoxyriboside (ddDAPR) were the most effective antiviral agents studied. ddDAPR given intramuscularly twice daily at 10 mg/kg rapidly cleared DHBV-DNA from the sera of persistently infected ducklings but this effect was not permanent.  相似文献
5.
Improving the fidelity of Thermus thermophilus DNA ligase.   总被引:4,自引:0,他引:4       下载免费PDF全文
J Luo  D E Bergstrom    F Barany 《Nucleic acids research》1996,24(15):3071-3078
The DNA ligase from Thermus thermophilus (Tth DNA ligase) seals single-strand breaks (nicks) in DNA duplex substrates. The specificity and thermostability of this enzyme are exploited in the ligase chain reaction (LCR) and ligase detection reaction (LDR) to distinguish single base mutations associated with genetic diseases. Herein, we describe a quantitative assay using fluorescently labeled substrates to study the fidelity of Tth DNA ligase. The enzyme exhibits significantly greater discrimination against all single base mismatches on the 3'-side of the nick in comparison with those on the 5'-side of the nick. Among all 12 possible single base pair mismatches on the 3'-side of the nick, only T-G and G-T mismatches generated a quantifiable level of ligation products after 23 h incubation. The high fidelity of Tth DNA ligase can be improved further by introducing a mismatched base or a universal nucleoside analog at the third position of the discriminating oligonucleotide. Finally, two mutant Tth DNA ligases, K294R and K294P, were found to have increased fidelity using this assay.  相似文献
6.
To better define protein-DNA interactions at a eukaryotic origin, the domain of simian virus 40 (SV40) large T antigen that specifically interacts with the SV40 origin has been purified and its binding to DNA has been characterized. Evidence is presented that the affinity of the purified T antigen DNA-binding domain for the SV40 origin is comparable to that of the full-length T antigen. Furthermore, stable binding of the T antigen DNA-binding domain to the SV40 origin requires pairs of pentanucleotide recognition sites separated by approximately one turn of a DNA double helix and positioned in a head-to-head orientation. Although two pairs of pentanucleotides are present in the SV40 origin, footprinting and band shift experiments indicate that binding is limited to dimer formation on a single pair of pentanucleotides. Finally, it is demonstrated that the T antigen DNA-binding domain interacts poorly with single-stranded DNA.  相似文献
7.
Yu L  Jiang BP  Luo D  Shen XC  Guo S  Duan JA  Tang YP 《Phytomedicine》2012,19(3-4):239-244
Chinese jujube (also known as Chinese date) is the fruit of Ziziphus jujuba Mill. (Rhamnaceae). As a famous folk medicine, it is used as antidote in traditional Chinese formula, Shi Zao Decoction, to relieve the drastic inflammatory irritant nature of Euphorbia species. The irritant activities may cause serious adverse effects in clinical practices. This study aimed to investigate the active components of Z. jujuba through the inhibitory effects on the inflammatory cells activated by Euphorbia kansui and prostratin, a phorbol ester isolated from Euphorbia fischeriana. Peritoneal macrophage of rat and splenic lymphocyte (splenocyte) of mouse were selected to evaluate these actions in vitro. Nitric oxide (NO) release of macrophage and the proliferation of splenocyte were examined through Griess method and MTT assay. TNF-α, as an important pro-inflammatory cytokines, was detected with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Six fractions extracted from Z. jujuba were evaluated and fraction F (triterpene acids fraction) was demonstrated to be the most active part, and then, 21 compounds isolated from Z. jujuba were tested at the concentrations range from 1 μg/ml to 100 μg/ml. The results show that 7 compounds of them are likely to be active compounds concerning to their pronounced inhibitory action on the activated inflammatory cells. These effects might be helpful to attenuate the irritant action of Euphorbiaceae plants and protect the gastrointestinal tissue from potent inflammatory injury, which should be beneficial to some diseases, like inflammatory bowel disease.  相似文献
8.
Cancer chemotherapy with taxol often fails due to acquired resistance of cancer cells, which is frequently associated with an overexpression of P-gp and alterations of beta-tubulin. A taxol-resistant cell line, QGY-TR50, derived from a human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) QGY-7703 cell line was used to investigate the mechanisms of taxol-resistance. QGY-TR50 cells showed more than 250-fold resistance to taxol and exhibited cross-resistance to other drugs including actinomycin D, doxorubicin, vinblastine, and vincristine. P-gp was highly expressed in QGY-TR50 cells. Expression levels of five human beta-tubulin isotypes (betaI-, betaII-,betaIII-, betaIva, and betaIvb-tubulin) were examined by real-time semi-quantitative PCR. Comparing with QGY-7703 cells, QGY-TR50 cells did not show any significant change in the expression levels of betaI-, betaIva, and betaIvb-tubulin. While a 1.2-fold increased in betaII-tubulin and a 0.5-fold decreased in betaIII-tubulin levels were observed. All results suggest that the P-glycoprotein could be one key factor involved in enhancing drug resistance in QGY-TR50 cells.  相似文献
9.
Bcl-2 family proteins play a critical role in the regulation of apoptosis. Treatment of a human hepatocellular carcinoma cell line, QGY-7703, with Taxol induced apoptosis and Bcl-2 protein phosphorylation. Microscopic observation indicated that apoptotic bodies (0-15%) of Taxol-treated QGY cells appeared after 12 h of treatment, and apoptotic QGY cells gradually increased to 40% after 24 h and 70% after 48 h. A DNA fragmentation assay showed that Taxol induced genomic DNA cleavage into 200 bp DNA fragments. Bcl-2 protein was phosphorylated in Taxol-treated QGY cells within 3 h of treatment, and continued gradually up to 24 h. By 48 h, the protein was unphosphorylated. Other Bcl-2 family proteins, including Bax (a heterodimerization partner of Bcl-2), Bcl-XL, Bak and Bad, were expressed, but at constant levels. The results show a close correlation between Bcl-2 phosphorylation and apoptosis in QGY cells. The inactivation of Bcl-2 protein phosphorylation could be one of the key mechanisms needed for the induction of apoptosis in Taxol-treated QGY cells.  相似文献
10.
We are using trichome (hair) morphogenesis as a model to study how plant cell shape is controlled. During a screen for new mutations that affect trichome branch initiation in Arabidopsis, we identified seven new mutants that show a reduction in trichome branch number from three branches to two. These mutations were named furca, after the Latin word for two-pronged fork. These seven recessive mutations were placed into four complementation groups that define four new genes: FURCA1, FURCA2, FURCA3 and FURCA4. The trichome branch number phenotype indicates that the FURCA genes encode positive regulators of trichome branch initiation. Analysis of double mutants suggests that primary and secondary branch initiation events are not genetically distinct, but rely on the levels of partially redundant groups of regulators of trichome branch initiation. Based on the analysis of both epistatic and additive genetic interactions between the FURCA genes and other genes that control trichome branch number, we propose a model that explains how these genes interact to control trichome branch initiation. This model successfully predicts the phenotypes of all the single and double mutants examined and suggests points of control of the trichome branch pathway.  相似文献
设为首页 | 免责声明 | 关于勤云 | 加入收藏

Copyright©北京勤云科技发展有限公司  京ICP备09084417号