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In this study, we analyzed the phenotypic and physiological consequences of the interaction of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) with human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1). pDCs are one cellular target of HIV-1 and respond to the virus by producing alpha/beta interferon (IFN-alpha/beta) and chemokines. The outcome of this interaction, notably on the function of bystander myeloid DC (CD11c+ DCs), remains unclear. We therefore evaluated the effects of HIV-1 exposure on these two DC subsets under various conditions. Blood-purified pDCs and CD11c+ DCs were exposed in vitro to HIV-1, after which maturation markers, cytokine production, migratory capacity, and CD4 T-cell stimulatory capacity were analyzed. pDCs exposed to different strains of infectious or even chemically inactivated, nonreplicating HIV-1 strongly upregulated the expression of maturation markers, such as CD83 and functional CCR7, analogous to exposure to R-848, a synthetic agonist of toll-like receptor-7 and -8. In addition, HIV-1-activated pDCs produced cytokines (IFN-alpha and tumor necrosis factor alpha), migrated in response to CCL19 and, in coculture, matured CD11c+ DCs, which are not directly activated by HIV. pDCs also acquired the ability to stimulate naïve CD4+ T cells, albeit less efficiently than CD11c+ DCs. This HIV-1-induced maturation of both DC subsets may explain their disappearance from the blood of patients with high viral loads and may have important consequences on HIV-1 cellular transmission and HIV-1-specific T-cell responses.  相似文献
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Obesity is an increasingly serious health problem in the world. Body mass index (BMI), percentage fat mass, and body fat mass are important indices of obesity. For a sample of pedigrees that contains >10,000 relative pairs (including 1,249 sib pairs) that are useful for linkage analyses, we performed a whole-genome linkage scan, using 380 microsatellite markers to identify genomic regions that may contain quantitative-trait loci (QTLs) for obesity. Each pedigree was ascertained through a proband who has extremely low bone mass, which translates into a low BMI. A major QTL for BMI was identified on 2q14 near the marker D2S347 with a LOD score of 4.04 in two-point analysis and a maximum LOD score (MLS) of 4.44 in multipoint analysis. The genomic region near 2q14 also achieved an MLS >2.0 for percentage of fat mass and body fat mass. For the putative QTL on 2q14, as much as 28.2% of BMI variation (after adjustment for age and sex) may be attributable to this locus. In addition, several other genomic regions that may contain obesity-related QTLs are suggested. For example, 1p36 near the marker D1S468 may contain a QTL for BMI variation, with a LOD score of 2.75 in two-point analysis and an MLS of 2.09 in multipoint analysis. The genomic regions identified in this and earlier reports are compared for further exploration in extension studies that use larger samples and/or denser markers for confirmation and fine-mapping studies, to eventually identify major functional genes involved in obesity.  相似文献
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Leprosy enables investigation of mechanisms by which the innate immune system contributes to host defense against infection, because in one form, the disease progresses, and in the other, the infection is limited. We report that Toll-like receptor (TLR) activation of human monocytes induces rapid differentiation into two distinct subsets: DC-SIGN+ CD16+ macrophages and CD1b+ DC-SIGN- dendritic cells. DC-SIGN+ phagocytic macrophages were expanded by TLR-mediated upregulation of interleukin (IL)-15 and IL-15 receptor. CD1b+ dendritic cells were expanded by TLR-mediated upregulation of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and its receptor, promoted T cell activation and secreted proinflammatory cytokines. Whereas DC-SIGN+ macrophages were detected in lesions and after TLR activation in all leprosy patients, CD1b+ dendritic cells were not detected in lesions or after TLR activation of peripheral monocytes in individuals with the progressive lepromatous form, except during reversal reactions in which bacilli were cleared by T helper type 1 (TH1) responses. In tuberculoid lepromatous lesions, DC-SIGN+ cells were positive for macrophage markers, but negative for dendritic cell markers. Thus, TLR-induced differentiation of monocytes into either macrophages or dendritic cells seems to crucially influence effective host defenses in human infectious disease.  相似文献
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Decoy receptor 3 (DcR3), a soluble receptor belonging to the TNFR superfamily, is a receptor for both Fas ligand (FasL) and LIGHT. It has been demonstrated that DcR3 is up-regulated in lung and colon cancers, thus promoting tumor growth by neutralizing the cytotoxic effects of FasL and LIGHT. In this study, we found that DcR3.Fc profoundly modulated dendritic cell differentiation and maturation from CD14(+) monocytes, including the up-regulation of CD86/B7.2, and the down-regulation of CD40, CD54/ICAM-1, CD80/B7.1, CD1a, and HLA-DR. Moreover, DcR3-treated dendritic cells suppressed CD4(+) T cell proliferation in an allogeneic MLR and up-regulated IL-4 secretion of CD4(+)CD45RA(+) T cells. This suggests that DcR3.Fc may act not only as a decoy receptor to FasL and LIGHT, but also as an effector molecule to skew T cell response to the Th2 phenotype.  相似文献
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Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is a cytokine that promotes CD4(+) T cell homeostasis and contributes to allergic and inflammatory responses. TSLP can act directly on mouse CD4(+) T cells, but in humans, the available data have indicated that TSLP receptors are not expressed on CD4(+) T cells and that TSLP instead activates dendritic cells, which in turn promote the proliferation and differentiation of CD4(+) T cells. We now unexpectedly demonstrate the presence of TSLP receptors on activated human CD4(+) T cells. Strikingly, whereas freshly isolated peripheral blood human T cells show little if any response to TSLP, TCR stimulation allows a potent response to this cytokine. Moreover, TSLP increases the sensitivity of human CD4(+) T cells to low doses of IL-2, augmenting responsiveness of these cells to TCR engagement. Our results establish that human CD4(+) T cells are direct targets for TSLP.  相似文献
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Liver dendritic cells (DC) are believed to play important roles in liver immunity, autoimmunity, and in the regulation of hepatic allograft acceptance. However, limited information is available on the phenotypes and functions of DC in the liver. To address this issue, we isolated DC from murine liver using procedures that do not involve collagenase, and characterized the freshly isolated DC population that had not been subjected to in vitro expansion. Thence, based on the expression of CD4, B220, and CD11b, four subsets or groups of hepatic NK1.1(-)CD11c(+) DC were identified with the following phenotypes: B220(+)CD4(+), B220(+)CD4(-), B220(-)CD11b(+), and B220(-)CD11b(-). Each subset was further characterized both phenotypically and functionally. In addition to unique phenotypic expression, each subset displayed different allostimulation capability in mixed lymphocyte reaction assays. All four groups developed DC morphology following in vitro culture with activation agents and synthesized distinct patterns of cytokines in response to different stimuli. Taken together, our results suggest that groups I and II are IFN-alpha-producing plasmacytoid DC, group III cells are myeloid-related DC, while group IV is a heterogeneous population containing both myeloid- and lymphoid-related DC. Our results demonstrate the highly heterogeneous nature of hepatic DC, which is in agreement with the unique requirements for APC in the complex liver environment.  相似文献
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松墨天牛成虫头部感受器超微结构的观察   总被引:7,自引:3,他引:4  
宁眺  刘拥军  孙江华 《昆虫知识》2004,41(6):566-571
扫描电镜观察表明 ,松墨天牛MonochamusalternatusHope成虫头部存在 1 1种感受器。触角有 8种 ,下颚须和下唇须有 6种。栓锥感受器Ⅰ型、毛形感受器Ⅰ型及刺形感受器为触角、下颚须和下唇须共有。触角特有栓锥感受器Ⅱ型、毛形感受器Ⅱ型、锥形感受器以及柱形感受器Ⅰ型和Ⅱ型。下颚须及下唇须特有钟形感受器、坛形感受器和板形感受器。松墨天牛成虫触角感受器在种类、数量和分布上存在性别差异 ,雌雄虫的下颚须和下唇须感受器数量有所不同。  相似文献
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In the present study, we tested the association between the estrogen receptor alpha (ER-alpha) and vitamin D receptor (VDR) genes with bone mineral density (BMD). A total of 649 healthy Chinese women, classified as pre-menopausal (N=388) and post-menopausal (N=261) groups, were genotyped at the ER-alpha PvuII, XbaI, and VDR ApaI sites. BMDs at the lumbar spine (L(1)-L(4)) and total hip were measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. For the VDR ApaI locus, AA carriers had lower spine BMD than Aa (p=0.02) and aa carriers (p<0.01) in the pre-menopausal group. For the ER-alpha gene, carriers of haplotype px had lower spine BMD than the non-carriers (p=0.03) in the pre-menopausal group. Furthermore, we observed significant interaction between the ER-alpha and VDR genes in the post-menopausal group: with AA genotype (or A allele) at the VDR ApaI locus, pX carriers had higher spine BMD than the non-carriers (p=0.02), and PX carriers had lower hip BMD than the non-carriers (p=0.04). Our data suggest that the ER-alpha and VDR genes may be associated with the BMD variation in Chinese women.  相似文献
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利用mRNA差异显示技术(differential display)从草木樨状黄芪耐甲硫氨酸变异系中分离到一差异cDNA片段,命名为tm03(360bp)。mRNA杂交结果显示,该片段只在变异苗中表达,初步确定其与甲硫氨酸代谢相关。测序后在Genebank搜寻,未发现有同源序列。进一步分析表明,该cDNA克隆可编码完整的蛋白。在该基因片段两端分别合成含HindⅡ和BamH Ⅰ酶切位点的引物,用PCR扩增后亚克隆到pRSET A表达载体,转化宿主菌JMl09(DE3),经IPTG诱导表达了N′端含6个组氨酸的蛋白质,分子量约为14kD,为进一步研究该蛋白的结构和生物学功能奠定基础。  相似文献
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