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1.
The complex consisting of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and associated MD-2 signals the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) when it is expressed in cell lines. We here show that normal human mononuclear cells express TLR4 and signal LPS via TLR4. CD14 is a molecule that binds to LPS and facilitates its signaling. Little is known, however, about the relationship of CD14 with TLR4-MD-2. We show that CD14 helps TLR4-MD-2 to sense and signal the presence of LPS. CD14 has also been implicated in recognition of apoptotic cells, which leads to phagocytosis without activation. Membrane phospholipids such as phosphatidylserine (PS) or phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) are thought to serve as the ligands for CD14 in apoptotic cells. We find that PtdIns acts as an LPS antagonist in the signaling via TLR4-MD-2. TLR4-MD-2 seems to discriminate LPS from phospholipids. The signaling via TLR4-MD-2 is thus regulated by CD14 and phospholipid such as PtdIns.  相似文献
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We hypothesized that host antiviral genes induced by type I interferons might affect the natural course of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). We analyzed single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of 2',5'-oligoadenylate synthetase 1 (OAS-1), myxovirus resistance-A (MxA), and double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase in 44 Vietnamese SARS patients with 103 controls. The G-allele of non-synonymous A/G SNP in exon 3 of OAS-1 gene showed association with SARS (p=0.0090). The G-allele in exon 3 of OAS-1 and the one in exon 6 were in strong linkage disequilibrium and both of them were associated with SARS infection. The GG genotype and G-allele of G/T SNP at position -88 in the MxA gene promoter were found more frequently in hypoxemic group than in non-hypoxemic group of SARS (p=0.0195). Our findings suggest that polymorphisms of two IFN-inducible genes OAS-1 and MxA might affect susceptibility to the disease and progression of SARS at each level.  相似文献
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Sediment and water column phosphorus fractions were recorded monthly for one year (April 2004–April 2005) in a shallow lake recovering from nutrient pollution (Loch Leven, Scotland). Equilibrium phosphate concentration (EPC0) and gross sediment phosphorus (P) release rates were estimated from laboratory experiments. Pore water and organic P pools were lowest during warm water periods whereas bottom water P was lowest during cold water periods. Reductant-soluble, organic, metal oxide-adsorbed, residual and sediment total phosphorus pools all varied significantly with overlying water depth. Short-term, high magnitude, redox initiated P release events occurred in late summer and winter as a result of anoxic sediment conditions. Lower magnitude long-term release conditions were maintained for most of the year, most likely as a result of organic P cycling and maintenance of high concentration gradients between the pore and bottom water P pools. Estimates of summer P uptake/release rates, across an intact sediment-water interface, suggested that maximum gross internal release was ~12 mg SRP m−2 lake surface area d−1 with EPC0 values ranging between 180 and 270 μg P L−1. This study highlights the biological mediation of internal loading in shallow eutrophic lakes, and in particular, the role of sediment algae in decreasing, and sediment bacteria in enhancing, sediment P release.  相似文献
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The present study deals with whether lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced intra-uterine fetal death (IUFD) is related to LPS-susceptibility of either mother or fetus and how LPS or LPS-induced TNF causes IUFD. LPS-susceptible C3H/HeN or -hypo-susceptible C3H/HeJ pregnant mice and the mice mated reciprocally with these mice were used on days 14 to 16 of gestation for experiments. All of fetuses in pregnant C3H/HeN mice mated with either C3H/HeN males [HeN(HeN)] or C3H/HeJ males [HeN(HeJ)] were killed within 24 hr when injected intravenously (i.v.) with 50 or 100 microg of LPS. On the other hand, the majority of fetuses in C3H/HeJ females mated with either C3H/HeJ males [HeJ(HeJ)] or C3H/HeN males [HeJ(HeN)] survived when injected i.v. with even 400 microg of LPS. These findings indicate that LPS-induced IUFD depends on the maternal LPS-responsiveness. LPS injected into mothers could pass through placenta to fetuses, since an injection with 125I-labeled LPS or IgG into pregnant mice resulted in considerable levels of radioactivity in fetuses as well as placenta. Cultured peritoneal macrophages derived from F1 mice of HeJ(HeN) or HeN(HeJ) mice, produced nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) in response to LPS, although the levels of NO and TNF were lower in comparison with those of C3H/HeN macrophage cultures, suggesting a possibility that the fetus as well as F1 cells might be responsible to LPS. LPS-induced IUFD was not blocked by treatment with anti-TNF antibody which inhibited LPS-induced TNF production in pregnant females, although an injection of recombinant TNFalpha instead of LPS could induce IUFD, suggesting that the cause of IUFD cannot be attributed to mother-derived TNF alone. The roles of LPS passed through placenta and LPS-induced mediators on IUFD were discussed.  相似文献
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Abstract Natural partial structures of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) as well as synthetic analogues and derivatives of lipid A were compared with respect to inhibit the binding of 125I-labelled Re-chemotype LPS to mouse macrophage-like J774.1 cells to induce cytokine-release in J774.1 cells. LPS, synthetic Escherichia coli -type lipid A (compound 506) and tetraacyl percursor Ia (compound 406) inhibited the binding of 125I-LPS to macrophage-like J774.1 cells and induced the release of tumor ncerosis factor α (TNFα) and interleukin 6 (IL-6). Deacylated R-chemotype LPS preparations were completely inactive in inhibiting binding and in inducing cytokine-release. Among tetraacyl compounds, the inhibition-capacity of LPS-binding was in decreasing order: PE-4 ( α -phosphonooxyethyl analogue of 406)>406⪢>404(4′-monophosphoryl partial structure of 406)>405 (1-monophosphoryl partial structure of 406). In the case of hexaccyl preparations, compounds 506, PE-1 (α-phosphonooxyethyl analogue of 506) and PE-2 (differing from PE-1 in having 14:0 at positions 2 and 3 of the reducing GlcN) inhibited LPS-binding and induced cytokine release equally well, whereas preparation PE-3 (differing from PE-2 in containing a β-phosphhonooxyethyl group) showed a substantially lower capacity in binding-inhibition and cytokine-induction. The conclusion is that chemical changes in the hydrophilic lipid A backbone reduce the capacity of lipid A to bind to cells, whereas the number of fatty acids determines the capacity of lipid A to activate cells. These results indicate that the bisphosphorylated hexosamine backbone of lipid A is essential for specific binding of LPS to macrophages and that the acylation pattern plays a critical role for LPS-promoted cell activation, i.e. cytokine induction.  相似文献
9.
Abstract Pentaacyl diphosphoryllipid A derived from the nontoxic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Rhodobacter sphaeroides ATCC 17023 (RsDPLA) did not induce tumour necrosis factor-α nor interleukin-6 release in the murine macrophage-like cell line J774.1. However, it effectively inhibited the induction of these two cytokines by LPS of Salmonella minnesota Re mutant R595 (ReLPA) in a concentration-dependent manner. Maximal inhibition and half-maximal inhibition occured when the ReLPS to RsDPLA mass ratio was 1:30 and 1:1, respectively. A binding study was performed in the presence of serum to determine whether RsDPLA is competing with ReLPS for LPS binding sites on J774.1 cells. This assay allows the determination of LPS binding to J774.1 cells via a mechanism involving CD14, a receptor for complexes of LPS with LPS binding protein (LBP), and its possible inhibition. The results show that RsDPLA strongly inhibits the binding of 125I-labelled ReLPS to J774.1 cells. Maximal and one-half maximal inhibition of binding occured when the ReLPS to RsDPLA mass ratios were 1:2.5 and 1:0.5, respectively. It was found that the inhibition of binding by RsDPLA was much stronger than that by unlabelled ReLPS. These results suggest that RsDPLA is competing with ReLPS for CD14-dependent recognition of LPS on J774.1 cells.  相似文献
10.
It is usually assumed that climate change will have negative impacts on water quality and hinder restoration efforts. The long-term monitoring at Loch Leven shows, however, that seasonal changes in temperature and rainfall may have positive and negative impacts on water quality. In response to reductions in external nutrient loading, there have been significant reductions in in-lake phosphorus concentrations. Annual measures of chlorophyll a have, however, shown little response to these reductions. Warmer spring temperatures appear to be having a positive effect on Daphnia densities and this may be the cause of reduced chlorophyll a concentrations in spring and an associated improvement in water clarity in May and June. The clearest climate impact was the negative relationship between summer rainfall and chlorophyll a concentrations. This is highlighted in extreme weather years, with the three wettest summers having very low chlorophyll a concentrations and the driest summers having high concentrations. To predict water quality impacts of future climate change, there is a need for more seasonal predictions from climate models and a greater recognition that water quality is the outcome of seasonal responses in different functional groups of phytoplankton and zooplankton to a range of environmental drivers.  相似文献
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