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1.
Monocytes/macrophages exposed to LPS show reduced responses to second stimulation with LPS, which is termed LPS tolerance. In this study, we investigated molecular mechanism of LPS tolerance in macrophages. Mouse peritoneal macrophages pre-exposed to LPS exhibited reduced production of inflammatory cytokines in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Activation of neither IL-1 receptor-associated kinase nor NF-kappaB was observed in macrophages that became tolerant by LPS pretreatment, indicating that the proximal event in Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-MyD88-dependent signaling is affected in tolerant macrophages. Although TLR4 mRNA expression significantly decreased within a few hours of LPS pretreatment and returned to the original level at 24 h, the surface TLR4 expression began to decrease within 1 h, with a gradual decrease after that, and remained suppressed over 24 h. A decrease in inflammatory cytokine production in tolerant macrophages well correlates with down-regulation of the surface TLR4 expression, which may explain one of the mechanisms for LPS tolerance.  相似文献
2.
The human MD-2 molecule is associated with the extracellular domain of human Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and greatly enhances its LPS signaling. The human TLR4-MD-2 complex thus signals the presence of LPS. Little is known, however, about cell surface expression and LPS signaling of the TLR4-MD-2 complex in vivo. We cloned mouse MD-2 molecularly and established a unique mAb MTS510, which reacted selectively with mouse TLR4-MD-2 but not with TLR4 alone in flow cytometry. Mouse MD-2 expression in TLR4-expressing cells enhanced LPS-induced NF-kappaB activation, which was clearly inhibited by MTS510. Thioglycolate-elicited peritoneal macrophages expressed TLR4-MD-2, which was rapidly down-regulated in the presence of LPS. Moreover, LPS-induced TNF-alpha production by peritoneal macrophages was inhibited by MTS510. Collectively, the TLR4-MD-2 complex is expressed on macrophages in vivo and senses and signals the presence of LPS.  相似文献
3.
The complex consisting of Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and associated MD-2 signals the presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) when it is expressed in cell lines. We here show that normal human mononuclear cells express TLR4 and signal LPS via TLR4. CD14 is a molecule that binds to LPS and facilitates its signaling. Little is known, however, about the relationship of CD14 with TLR4-MD-2. We show that CD14 helps TLR4-MD-2 to sense and signal the presence of LPS. CD14 has also been implicated in recognition of apoptotic cells, which leads to phagocytosis without activation. Membrane phospholipids such as phosphatidylserine (PS) or phosphatidylinositol (PtdIns) are thought to serve as the ligands for CD14 in apoptotic cells. We find that PtdIns acts as an LPS antagonist in the signaling via TLR4-MD-2. TLR4-MD-2 seems to discriminate LPS from phospholipids. The signaling via TLR4-MD-2 is thus regulated by CD14 and phospholipid such as PtdIns.  相似文献
4.
Summary Gene dosage effects for catalase (CAT) were studied in two unrelated patients with an interstitial deletion involving 11p13 to determine precisely the sites of the genes for CAT and the Wilms tumor—aniridia, genitourinary abnormalities, and mental retardation triad (WAGR) in the 11p13 band. Case 1 had the aniridia-Wilms tumor association, and case 2 showed the AGR triad. The karyotypes identified by high resolution banding techniques were 46,XY,del(11)(pterp13::p11.11qter) for case 1 and 46,XY,t(2;17) (q23;q25), del(11) (pterp13::p11.2 qter) for case 2. In both cases, the distal breakpoints of the deleted chromosomes 11 appeared to have occurred on the middle portion of 11p13 (11p1305p1306). The level of erythrocyte CAT activities in case 1 was reduced (47% of normal), while that in case 2 was normal. The results suggested not only that both the CAT and WAGR should be mapped to chromosome region 11p1305p1306, but also that in this region the CAT locus is more distally placed than the WAGR locus. Because of the proximity of the two gene loci, assays of erythrocyte CAT may be useful to identify a submicroscopic deletion in some patients with sporadic aniridia and to predict a risk of developing Wilms tumor.  相似文献
5.
Chlamydia pneumoniae is a widespread pathogen of humans causing pneumonia and bronchitis. There are many reports of an association between C.pneumoniae infection and atherosclerosis. We determined the whole genome sequence of C.pneumoniae strain J138 isolated in Japan in 1994 and compared it with the sequence of strain CWL029 isolated in the USA before 1987. The J138 circular chromosome consists of 1 226 565 nt (40.7% G+C) with 1072 likely protein-coding genes that is 3665 nt shorter than the CWL029 genome. Plasmids, phage- or transposon-like sequences were not identified. The overall genomic organization, gene order and predicted proteomes of the two strains are very similar, suggesting a high level of structural and functional conservation between the two unrelated isolates. The most conspicuous differences in the J138 genome relative to the CWL029 genome are the absence of five DNA segments, ranging in size from 89 to 1649 nt, and the presence of three DNA segments, ranging from 27 to 84 nt. The complex organization of these ‘different zones’ may be attributable to a unique system of recombination.  相似文献
6.
This laboratory demonstrated earlier that oleic acid inhibited platelet activating factor (PAF)-induced aggregation and serotonin release of rabbit platelets (M. Miwa, C. Hill, R. Kumar, J. Sugatani, M. S. Olson, and D. J. Hanahan, 1987, J. Biol. Chem. 262, 527-530). More recently, we reported that oleic acid caused a decrease in phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate (PIP) and phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2), but did not affect the level of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3), in rabbit platelets (D. Nunez, J. Randon, C. Gandhi, A. Siafaka-Kapadai, M. S. Olson, and D. J. Hanahan, 1990, J. Biol. Chem. 265, 18330-18838). These results suggested that oleic acid did not stimulate phospholipase C. In contrast, PAF induced a decrease in PIP2 and an increase in PIP level and IP3. These effects were shown to be attenuated by oleic acid. In this current study, our experiments show that (a) oleic acid blocked PAF-induced rise in intracellular [Ca2+] (to provide a mechanism in agreement with our previous experiments which showed that oleic acid inhibited PAF-induced IP3 rise in platelets) and (b) oleic acid itself induced a gradual rise in [Ca2+]i, which would provide a mechanism for oleic acid-induced aggregation despite the fact that oleic acid did not cause the production of IP3 (Nunez et al., 1990). Oleic acid, in a dose-dependent manner, was shown to inhibit PAF-induced Ca2+ mobilization from intra- and extracellular sources. The inhibition was closely related to the suppressive effect of oleic acid on PAF-induced aggregation. Furthermore, oleic acid inhibited the PAF-stimulated phosphorylation of the 20- and 40-kDa proteins. At concentrations above 20 microM, oleic acid itself could induce platelet aggregation and Ca2+ mobilization, but the time sequence of these two responses in human platelets was significantly different from those obtained with PAF. Oleic acid alone, at 20 microM, caused a 1.4-fold increase in the cAMP level in platelets which was followed by a decline to a basal value at higher concentrations of this fatty acid. It seemed clear that elevation of adenylate cyclase activity was not associated with free fatty acid inhibition of platelet activation. Interestingly, both PAF and oleic acid added separately to human platelets induced protein-tyrosine phosphorylation, but oleic acid did not cause any inhibition of PAF-induced protein-tyrosine phosphorylation.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS)  相似文献
7.
A cDNA clone encoding a soybean allergen, Gly m Bd 28K, has been isolated. The clone has a 1567-bp cDNA insert with a 1419-bp open reading frame and a 148-bp 3'-untranslated region, followed by a polyadenylation tail. The open reading frame was shown to encode a polypeptide composed of 473 amino acids. The chemically determined amino acid sequences of the peptides obtained from the allergen, including its N-terminal peptide, were shown to be contained in the N-terminal region of the amino acid sequence deduced from the cDNA, showing that the first half of the cDNA encodes the allergen with a preceding segment of 21 amino acids. The peptide fragment including the allergen was expressed as a fusion protein with glutathione S-transferase in Escherichia coli and immunoblotted with the sera of soybean-sensitive patients and the monoclonal antibody against the allergen. Furthermore, homology analyses demonstrate that the polypeptide for the cDNA exhibits high homology with the MP27/MP32 proteins in pumpkin seeds and the carrot globulin-like protein. This finding suggests that the polypeptide may consist of a 21-amino acid segment as a part of the signal peptide and the proprotein, which may be converted to two mature proteins, Gly m Bd 28K and a 23-kDa protein, during the development of soybean cotyledons.  相似文献
8.
Tokuo H  Yunoue S  Feng L  Kimoto M  Tsuji H  Ono T  Saya H  Araki N 《FEBS letters》2001,494(1-2):48-53
The neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) tumor suppressor (neurofibromin) is thought to play crucial roles in cellular Ras- and cAMP-dependent kinase (PKA)-associated signals. In this study, we identified a cellular neurofibromin-associating protein, N(G),N(G)-dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH) that is known as a cellular NO/NOS regulator. The interaction of DDAH was mainly directed to the C-terminal domain (CTD) and to the cysteine/serine-rich domain (CSRD) of neurofibromin, coinciding with the regions containing specific PKA phosphorylation sites. DDAH increased PKA phosphorylation of native neurofibromin in a dose-dependent manner, especially affecting the phosphorylation of CSRD. These findings suggest that the PKA accessibility of neurofibromin was regulated via DDAH interaction, and this regulation may modulate the cellular function of neurofibromin that is implicated in NF1-related pathogenesis.  相似文献
9.
Seven monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against the wheat allergen, Tri a Bd 17 K, were prepared to obtain mAbs suitable for a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (sandwich ELISA) for determination of the allergen. Two of the mAbs strongly immunoblotted the allergen purified from wheat flour. However, only one (1G11) of them was found to be suitable for sandwich ELISA. Epitope mapping against mAb-1G11 on the allergen showed that the mAb recognized the peptide containing Lys-38 and Gln-39 of the allergen. We developed a sandwich ELISA method consisting of Aleuria aurantia lectin for fixing the allergen and 1G11 as the first antibody that enabled 4-4,000 ng/well of the allergen to be determined.  相似文献
10.
Unnatural bases, 2-amino-6-(2-thienyl)purine and 2-amino-6-(2-furanyl)purine, were newly designed to replace the previously developed purine analogue, 2-amino-6-(N,N-dimethylamino)purine, which specifically pairs with pyridin-2-one. These nucleoside derivatives were synthesized via the 6-substitution of 6-iodopurine nucleosides with tributylstannylthiophene or tributylstannylfuran. As compared with 2-amino-6-(N,N-dimethylamino)purine, 2-amino-6-(2-thienyl)purine reduced the interference in the stacking interactions with the neighboring bases in a DNA duplex and improved the efficiency of the enzymatic incorporation of the nucleoside triphosphate of pyridin-2-one opposite the unnatural base.  相似文献
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